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NHTSA 2015 DWI Manual

 

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DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing (SFST)

Acknowledgements Preface

Session

Session Session Session Session Session Session Session Session Session Session

1: Introduction to DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing Glossary of Terms

2: Detection and General Deterrence
3: The Legal Environment
4: Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony
5: Phase One: Vehicle in Motion
6: Phase Two: Personal Contact
7: Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening
8: Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST) 9: Test Battery Demonstrations
10: “Dry Run” Practice Session
11: “Testing Subjects” Practice: First Session

Sample Dry Erase Board Array for Tabulating Results Sample Field Arrest Log

Revised: 10/2015

DWI Detection and SFST Table of Contents

Page 1 of 2

Participant Manual

Table of Contents

10/2015 Curriculum

Session 12: Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial Specific DWI Trial Recommendations

Sample DWI Incident Report
Session 13: Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Session 14: “Testing Subjects” Practice: Second Session
Sample Dry Erase Board Array for Tabulating Results

SFST Field Arrest Log Session 15: Review and Proficiency Exams

Participant Proficiency Examination SFST Battery Session 16: Written Examination and Program Conclusion

SFST Post Test
SFST Post Test Answer Sheet
SFST Post Test Remedial Test
SFST Post Test Remedial Test Answer Sheet SFST Course Critique

Optional Session: Introduction to Drugged Driving

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10/2015 Table of Contents Page 2 of 2

Acknowledgements

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) would like to thank the following individuals for their contributions in updating and revising the 2015 SFST curricula.

Jonlee Anderle, Wyoming Department of Transportation Highway Safety Office Kyle Clark, Institute of Police Technology and Management
Don Decker, Nahant MA Police Department
Evan Graham, Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Chuck Hayes, International Association of Chiefs of Police
Mike Iwai, Oregon State Police
Pam McCaskill, DOT Transportation Safety Institute, Oklahoma City, OK
Bill Morrison, Montgomery County Police Department, MD (Retired)
Bill O'Leary, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Doug Paquette, New York State Police
James Roy, Colchester, VT Police Department
Joanne Thomka, National Traffic Law Center of the National District Attorneys Association

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10/2015 Acknowledgements Page 1 of 1

Preface

The Standardized Field Sobriety Testing (SFST) training curriculum collectively, prepares police officers and other qualified persons to conduct the SFST's for use in DWI investigations. This training, developed under the auspices and direction of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), has experienced remarkable success since its inception in the early 1980s.

As in any educational training program, an instruction manual or guide is considered a “living document” that is subject to updates and changes based on advances in technology and science. A thorough review is made of information by the IACP Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) of the Highway Safety Committee of the IACP with contributions from many sources in health care science, toxicology, jurisprudence, and law enforcement. Based on this information, any appropriate revisions and modifications in background theory, facts, examination and decision making methods are made to improve the quality of the instruction as well as the standardization of guidelines for the implementation of the SFST curriculum. The reorganized manuals are then prepared and disseminated, both domestically and internationally, to the states. Changes will normally take effect 90 days after approval by the TAP, unless otherwise specified or when so designated.

The procedures outlined in this manual describe how the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFSTs) are to be administered under ideal conditions. We recognize that the SFST's will not always be administered under ideal conditions in the field, because such conditions do not always exist. Even when administered under less than ideal conditions, they will generally serve as valid and useful indicators of impairment. Slight variations from the ideal, i.e., the inability to find a perfectly smooth surface at roadside, may have some effect on the evidentiary weight given to the results. However, this does not necessarily make the SFSTs invalid.

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Session 1 - Introduction

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Location Date

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Session 1 - Introduction

Session 1

Introduction and Overview

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

30 Minutes

1-2

A. Welcoming Remarks

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Session 1 - Introduction

Housekeeping

  • Paperwork

  • Mandatory attendance

  • Breaks

  • Facility

  • Interruptions

• All electronic devices off

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-3

B. Administrative Details

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Session 1 - Introduction

Participant Introductions

• Name
• Agency
• Duty assignment • Experience

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-4

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Session 1 - Introduction

Learning Objectives

  • Course goals and objectives

  • Course schedule and activities • ParticipantManualcontents
    • Pre-trainingknowledge

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-5

Session 1 - Introduction

Course Goal

Increase deterrence of DWI violations; thereby reducing the number of crashes, deaths, and injuries caused by impaired drivers.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-6

Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

  • State the goals and objectives of the course

  • Describe the course schedule and activities

  • Recognize the Participant Manual contents

  • Demonstrate their pre-training knowledge of course topics

    CONTENT SEGMENTS...................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITES

    A. Welcoming Remarks and Objectives .............................................. Instructor-Led Presentations

    B. Administrative Details..................................................................................Written Examination

    C. Pre-Test

    The goal of this course is to ultimately increase deterrence of DWI violations; thereby reducing the number of crashes, deaths, and injuries caused by impaired drivers.

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Session 1 - Introduction

Enforcement Goals

  • Enforcement's role in general DWI deterrence

  • DWI detection phases, clues, and techniques

  • Requirements for organizing and presenting evidence in DWI cases

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-7

Session 1 - Introduction

Impaired Drivers Kill or Injure a Person Every Minute!

65 deaths and injuries each hour!

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-8

Enforcement goals are to identify:

  • Enforcement's role in general DWI deterrence

  • DWI detection phases, clues and techniques

  • Requirements for organizing and presenting testimonial and documentary evidence in DWI cases

    65 deaths and injuries each hour!

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Session 1 - Introduction

State and Local Data

  • Approximately _____ people now live in _____.

  • About _____ of these people will die in vehicle crashes.

  • About _____ will die in DWI crashes.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-9

• • •

Approximately ____________ people now live in ____________. About __________ of these people will die in vehicle crashes. About _________will die in DWI crashes.

Revised: 10/2015

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Session 1 - Introduction

Job Performance Objectives

  • Recognize and interpret evidence of DWI violations

  • Administer and interpret Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFSTs)

  • Describe DWI evidence clearly and convincingly

  • Ensure video and/or audio evidence if available is consistent with other evidence

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-10

At the conclusion of this training, participants will demonstrate the ability to:

  • Recognize and interpret evidence of DWI violations

  • Administer and interpret Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

  • Describe DWI evidence clearly and convincingly in written reports and verbal testimony

  • Ensure video and/or audio evidence, if available, is consistent with other evidence

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Session 1 - Introduction

Job Performance Enabling Objectives

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-11

Session 1 - Introduction

Job Performance Enabling Objectives

Refer to Your Participant Manual

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-12

Job Performance Enabling Objectives

  • Understand the tasks and decisions of DWI detection

  • Recognize the magnitude and scope of DWI-related crashes, deaths, injuries, property loss

    and other social aspects of the DWI problem

  • Understand the deterrent effects of DWI enforcement

  • Understand the DWI enforcement legal environment

  • Know and recognize typical vehicle maneuvers and human indicators symptomatic of DWI that are associated with initial observation of vehicles in operation

  • Know and recognize typical reinforcing maneuvers and indicators that come to light during the stopping sequence

  • Know and recognize typical sensory and other clues of alcohol and/or other drug impairment that may be seen during face to face contact with DWI subjects

  • Know and recognize typical behavioral clues of alcohol and/or other drug impairment that may be seen during the subject's exit from the vehicle

  • Understand the role and relevance of psychophysical testing in pre-arrest screening of DWI subjects

  • Understand the role and relevance of preliminary breath testing in pre-arrest screening of DWI subjects

  • Know and carry out appropriate administrative procedures for the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test

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  • Know and carry out appropriate administrative procedures for validated divided attention psychophysical tests

  • Know and recognize typical clues of alcohol and/or other drug impairment that may be seen during administration of the SFSTs

  • Understand the factors that may affect the accuracy of preliminary breath testing devices

  • Understand the elements of DWI prosecution and their relevance to DWI arrest reporting

  • Choose appropriate descriptive terms to convey relevant observations of DWI evidence

  • Write clear, descriptive narrative DWI arrest reports

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Session 1 - Introduction

Participant Manual

Participant Manual

• Basic course reference
• Class notes for every session • Manual organization
• Preview sessions in advance • Review prior to exam

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-13

Session 1 - Introduction

Course Activity Schedule

Course Schedule

Refer to Your Participant Manual

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-14

The Participant Manual is the basic reference document for this course. The manual contains thumbnails of each instructor presentation that includes key messages for each frame. The manual also contains a glossary of terms that are used in this course.

  • Read each session prior to class

  • Use the manual to review the material prior to taking the final exam The course schedule is located in the Participant Manual.

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Session 1 Page 10 of 12

Session 1 - Introduction Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

SFST

SFST Glossary of Terms

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

1-15

The Glossary of Terms used in the course is also located in the Participant Manual.

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Session 1 - Introduction

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

C. Pre-Test

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DWI DETECTION AND STANDARDIZED FIELD SOBRIETY TESTING (SFST) GLOSSARY OF TERMS

ADDICTION

Habitual, psychological, and physiological dependence on a substance beyond one's voluntary control.

ALVEOLAR BREATH

Breath from the deepest part of the lung.

BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BAC)

The percentage of alcohol in a person's blood.

BREATH ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BrAC)

The percentage of alcohol in a person's breath, as measured by a breath testing device.

CLUE

CUE

DIVIDED ATTENTION

Concentrating on more than one thing at a time.

DIVIDED ATTENTION TEST

A test which requires the subject to concentrate on both mental and physical tasks at the same time. The two psychophysical tests Walk and Turn (WAT) and One Leg Stand (OLS) require the suspect to their divide attention.

DWI/DUI

The acronym "DWI" means driving while impaired and is synonymous with the acronym "DUI", driving under the influence or other acronyms used to denote impaired driving. These terms refer to any and all offenses involving the operation of vehicles by persons under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs.

DWI DETECTION PROCESS

The entire process of identifying and gathering evidence to determine whether or not a suspect should be arrested for a DWI violation. The DWI detection process has three phases:

Something that leads to the solution of a problem.

A reminder or prompting as a signal to do something. A suggestion or a hint.

Phase One – Vehicle In Motion Phase Two – Personal Contact Phase Three – Pre -arrest Screening

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Page 1 of 4

EVIDENCE

Any means by which some alleged fact that has been submitted to investigation may either be established or disproved. Evidence of a DWI violation may be of various types:

a. Physical (or real) evidence: something tangible, visible, or audible.
b. Well established facts (judicial notice).
c. Demonstrative evidence: demonstrations performed in the courtroom. d. Written matter or documentation.
e. Testimony.

EXPERT WITNESS

A person skilled in some art, trade, science or profession, having knowledge of matters not within the knowledge of persons of average education, learning and experience, who may assist a jury in arriving at a verdict by expressing an opinion on a state of facts shown by the evidence and based upon his or her special knowledge. (NOTE: Only the court can determine whether a witness is qualified to testify as an expert.)

FIELD SOBRIETY TEST

Any one of several roadside tests that can be used to determine whether a subject is impaired.

GAIT ATAXIA

An unsteady, staggering gait (walk) in which walking is uncoordinated and appears to be “not ordered.”

HORIZONTAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS (HGN)

Involuntary jerking of the eyes occurring as the eyes gaze to the side. The first test administered in the SFST battery.

NYSTAGMUS

An involuntary jerking of the eyes.

ONE LEG STAND (OLS)

A divided attention field sobriety test. One of the tests administered in the SFST battery.

PER SE

PERSONAL CONTACT

The second phase in the DWI detection process. In this phase the officer observes and interviews the driver face to face; determines whether to ask the driver to step from the vehicle; and observes the driver's exit and walk from the vehicle.

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Used to describe a law which makes it illegal to drive while having a certain percentage of alcohol in the blood or breath.

PRE-ARREST SCREENING

The third phase in the DWI detection process. In this phase the officer administers field sobriety tests to determine whether there is probable cause to arrest the driver for DWI. Depending on agency policy, the officer may administer or could arrange to have a preliminary breath test conducted.

PRELIMINARY BREATH TEST (PBT)

A pre-arrest breath test administered during investigation of a possible DWI violator to obtain an indication of the person's blood alcohol concentration.

PROBABLE CAUSE

It is more than mere suspicion; facts and circumstances within the officer's knowledge, and of which he or she has reasonably trustworthy information, are sufficient to warrant a person of reasonable caution to believe that an offense has been or is being committed.

PSYCHOPHYSICAL

"Mind/Body." Used to describe field sobriety tests that measure a person's ability to perform both mental and physical tasks.

PSYCHOPHYSICAL TESTS

Methods of investigating the mental (psycho-) and physical characteristics of a person suspected of alcohol or drug impairment. Most psychophysical tests employ the concept of divided attention to assess a suspect's impairment.

REASONABLE SUSPICION

Less than probable cause but more than mere suspicion; exists when an officer, in light of his or her training and experience, reasonably believes and can articulate that criminal activity is taking, has taken or is about to take place.

RESTING NYSTAGMUS

Jerking of the eyes as they look straight ahead.

STANDARDIZED FIELD SOBRIETY TEST BATTERY

Standardized Field Sobriety Testing. There are three SFSTs, namely Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN), Walk and Turn, and One Leg Stand. Based on a series of controlled laboratory studies, scientifically validated clues of alcohol impairment have been identified for each of these three tests. They are the only Standardized Field Sobriety Tests for which validated clues have been identified

TIDAL BREATH

Breath from the upper part of the lungs and mouth.

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TRAFFIC SAFETY RESOURCE PROSECUTOR (TSRP)

Is usually a current or former prosecutor who provides training, education and technical support to traffic crimes prosecutors and law enforcement agencies throughout their state. (For the contact information of your TSRP, contact your Highway Safety Office).

VALID

VALIDATED

A documented act of demonstrating that a procedure, process, and/or activity will consistently lead to accurate and reliable results.

VEHICLE IN MOTION

The first phase in the DWI detection process. In this phase the officer observes the vehicle in operation, determines whether to stop the vehicle, and observes the stopping sequence.

VERTICAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS

An involuntary jerking of the eyes (up and down) which occurs when the eyes gaze upward at maximum elevation. The jerking should be distinct and sustained.

WALK AND TURN (WAT)

A divided attention field sobriety test. One of the tests administered in SFST battery.

Conforming to accepted principles. Producing accurate and reliable results.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Learning Objectives

  • Describe frequency of DWI violations and crashes

  • Define general deterrence

  • Describe relationship between detection and

    general deterrence

  • Describe a brief history of alcohol

  • Identify common types of alcohol

  • Describe physiological processes of alcohol absorption, distribution, and elimination

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

2-2

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the frequency of DWI violations and crashes

  • Define general deterrence

  • Describe the relationship between detection and general deterrence

  • Describe a brief history of alcohol

  • Identify common types of alcohol

  • Describe the physiological processes of absorption, distribution, and elimination of

    alcohol in the body
    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  1. A. The DWI Problem...................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations

  2. B. The Concept of General Deterrence ....................................................... Video Presentation

  3. C. Relating Detection to Deterrence Potential ......................................... Reading Assignments

  4. Evidence of Effective Detection and Effective Deterrence

  5. Physiology of Alcohol

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

The DWI Problem

Traffic Deaths Average

05 06 07 08 09 10 11

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

2-4

Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

The DWI Problem

  • Prior to 1994, nearly half of the drivers who died in crashes had been drinking

  • In 2013 – 10,076 alcohol related fatalities represented 31% of all traffic fatalities

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

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A. The DWI Problem (Local, State and National)

How Widespread Is DWI?

While not all of those who drive after drinking have a BAC of 0.08 or more, the presumptive or illegal per se limit for DWI in all states, some drivers do have BACs in excess of these limits.

Prior to 1994, nearly half of the drivers who died in crashes had been drinking.

Each year, tens of thousands of people die in traffic crashes. Throughout the nation, alcohol is the major contributor to traffic fatalities. In 2013, there were 10,076 alcohol related fatalities representing 31% of all traffic fatalities. (NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts; 2013 Facts Data, 2014.)

Impaired drivers are more likely than other drivers to take excessive risks such as speeding or turning abruptly. Impaired drivers also are more likely than other drivers to have slowed reaction times. They may not be able to react quickly enough to slow down before crashing and are less likely to wear seatbelts. On the average, two percent of drivers on the road at any given time are DWI. DWI violations and crashes are not simply the work of a relatively few "problem drinkers" or "problem drug users." Many people commit DWI, at least occasionally.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Drivers Under the Influence

29 million people admitted driving under the influence in past 12 months

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Estimates indicate that nationwide about 29 million persons, 12 and over, self reported that they drove under the influence in the past 12 months.

It is also estimated that each day in the United States people drive while intoxicated almost 300,000 times, but fewer than 4,000 are arrested.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

National Statistics

What number of drivers commit this violation?

Weekend Nights – 10% or More

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A frequently quoted, and often misinterpreted, statistic places the average incidence of DWI at one driver in fifty. Averaged across all hours of the day and all days of the week, two percent of the drivers on the road are DWI. The 1 in 50 figure is offered as evidence that a relatively small segment of America's drivers, the so called "problem" group, account for the majority of traffic deaths. There's nothing wrong with that figure as a statistical average, but police officers know that at certain times and places many more than two percent of drivers are impaired. NHTSA research suggests that during the late night, weekend hours, as many as 10% of drivers on the roads may be DWI. On certain holiday weekends, and other critical times, the figure may go even higher.

How Many? How Often?

The issue of how many DWIs are on the road at any given time is an important factor in measuring the magnitude of the problem. However, from an overall traffic safety perspective, the more important issue may be the number of drivers who ever commit DWI. Just how widespread is this violation?

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Average DWI Violator

• Drives intoxicated 80 times before arrest • Once every four or five nights
• Some every day

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2-7

Although it may be true that, on the average, two percent of drivers are DWI at any given time, it certainly is not the same two percent every time. Not everyone who commits DWI is out on the road impaired every Friday and Saturday night. Some of them, at least, must skip an occasional weekend. Thus, the 10% who show up, weekend after weekend, in the Friday and Saturday statistics must come from a larger pool of violators, each of whom "contributes" to the statistics on some nights, but not necessarily on all nights.

There are some who drive impaired virtually everyday; others commit the violation less often. It is likely that at least one quarter of all American motorists drive while impaired at least once in their lives. That figure falls approximately midway between the 55% of drivers who at least occasionally drive after drinking and the 10% of weekend, nighttime drivers who have BACs above the legal limit.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

DWI Problem

  • Far more than 2% of drivers contribute to DWI problem

  • Crime committed by a substantial segment of Americans

  • Canbefoughtthroughsocietalapproach

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These estimates include everyone who drives impaired everyday, as well as everyone who commits the violation just once and never offends again; and it includes everyone in between. In short, it includes everyone who ever runs the risk of being involved in a crash while impaired.

Society's Problem and the Solution

The fact is that far more than two percent of American drivers actively contribute to the DWI problem. DWI is a crime committed by a substantial segment of Americans.

It has been and remains a popular crime; one that many people from all walks and areas of life commit. DWI is a crime that can be fought successfully only through a societal approach of comprehensive community based programs.

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  • 31% of all fatal crashes on weekends alcohol-impaired;

  • Alcohol impaired drivers involved in fatal crashes were 4 times higher at night; and

  • 1.28 million drivers were arrested for DWI in 2012;

  • These alcohol related fatalities represent an average of one alcohol related fatality every 51 minutes; and

  • Based on the most current cost data available, these alcohol related fatalities cost society approximately $49.8 billion in lost productivity, medical expenses, property damages, and other related expenditures.

    Source: NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts, 2013 Data, DOT HS 812 102, December 2014.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Alcohol Facts

Drivers with a BAC of .08 or higher accounted for 66% of the fatalities:

  • 16% were passengers riding with the driver with a BAC of .08 or higher

  • 11% of fatalities were occupants of other vehicles

• 7% were persons not in vehicles DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Alcohol Facts

  • In 2011, 9,944 lives were lost in speed- related crashes

  • 42% of all drivers with a BAC of .08 or higher, involved in fatal crashes, were speeding

  • Between midnight and 3:00 a.m., 72% of speeding drivers involved in fatal crashes had a BAC of .08 or higher

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  • In 2013, 10,076 lives were lost in alcohol impaired crashes representing 31% of the total motor vehicle fatalities in the U.S.

  • Drivers with a BAC of .08 or higher accounted for 65% of the fatalities, 16% were passengers riding with a driver with a BAC of .08 or higher, 11% of these fatalities were occupants of other vehicles, and 8% were persons not in vehicles.

    Source: NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts, 2013 Data, DOT HS 811 700, December 2014.

    • In 2011, 9,944 lives were lost in speed-related crashes

    • 42% of all drivers with a BAC of .08 or higher, involved in fatal crashes, were speeding

    • Between midnight and 3:00 a.m., 72% of speeding drivers involved in fatal crashes had a BAC of .08 or higher.

      Source: NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts, 2013 Data, DOT HS 811 751, April 2014.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Alcohol Facts

  • Therateofalcoholimpairmentfordrivers involved in fatal crashes was four and a half times higher at night than during the day

  • DriverswithaBACof.08orhigherwhowere involved in fatal crashes were seven times more likely to have a prior conviction for driving while impaired as compared to drivers involved in fatal crashes with no alcohol involvement

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  • The rate of alcohol impairment for drivers involved in fatal crashes was almost four times higher at night than during the day (35% versus 9%)

  • Drivers with a BAC of .08 or higher who were involved in fatal crashes were seven times more likely to have a prior conviction for driving while impaired as compared to drivers involved in fatal crashes with no alcohol involvement.

    Source: NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts, 2012 Data: Alcohol Impaired Driving, DOT HS 811 870, December 2013.

    • In 2012, 6,730 drivers (59%) involved in fatal crashes had a BAC of .15 or higher.

    • Males account for 70% of all traffic fatalities.

    • In 2010, the fatal crash involvement rate per 100,000 population was almost three times higher for male drivers than for females. This is the most recent data available.

      Source: NHTSA Prevalence of High BAC in Alcohol-impaired-driving fatal crashes, August 2012, DOT HS 811 654

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

General Deterrence

The fear of arrest

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B. Concept of General Deterrence

The fear of arrest is the leading deterrent.

One approach to reducing the number of drinking drivers is general deterrence of DWI. General deterrence of DWI is based in the driving public's fear of being arrested. If enough violators come to believe that there is a good chance that they will get caught, at least some of them will stop committing DWI at least some of the time. However, unless there is a real risk of arrest, there will not be much fear of arrest.

Law enforcement officers must arrest enough violators enough of the time to convince the general public that they will get caught, sooner or later, if they continue to drive while impaired.

How many DWI violators must be arrested in order to convince the public that there is a real risk of arrest for DWI?

Several programs have demonstrated that significant deterrence can be achieved by arresting one DWI violator for every 400 DWI violations committed. Currently, however, for every DWI violator arrested, there are between 500 and 2,000 DWI violations committed.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

General Deterrence

There is no reason to fear arrest

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When the chances of being arrested are one in two thousand, the average DWI violator really has little to fear.

There are three noteworthy reasons.

  • DWI violators vastly outnumber police officers. It is not possible to arrest every drinking driver each time they commit DWI.

  • Some officers are not highly skilled at DWI detection. They fail to recognize and arrest many DWI violators.

  • Some officers are not motivated to detect and arrest DWI violators.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Ft. Lauderdale BAC Study

Other Violations 78%

DWI 22%

Citations issued to violators later found to have BACs between 0.10 and 0.20.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Ft. Lauderdale BAC Study

For every DWI violator arrested

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Significant Findings

In a 1975 study conducted in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, only 22 % of traffic violators who were stopped with BACs between 0.10 and 0.20 were arrested for DWI. The remainder were cited for other violations, even though they were legally impaired. In this study breath tests were administered to the violators by researchers after the police officers had completed their investigations. The officers failed to detect 78 % of the DWI violators they investigated.

Police officers sometimes fail to recognize and arrest a DWI violator. Ft. Lauderdale (Florida) BAC study (1975): only 22 % of traffic violators with BACs between 0.10 and 0.20 were arrested for DWI.

Source: Selective Traffic Enforcement Program – Step – BAC in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. DOT-HS- 801-956, December 1976.

Implication: For every DWI violator actually arrested three others are contacted by police officers, face to face, but are released without arrest.

Significant improvement in arrest rate could be achieved if officers were more skilled at DWI detection.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

The Ultimate Goal: Changing Behavior

The goal is to encourage more Americans to:
• Avoid committing DWI
• Control drinking prior to driving
• Select alternative transportation
• Avoid riding with impaired drivers • Recognize impaired driving is

unacceptable behavior at all levels

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The Solutions

The Ultimate Goal: Changing Behavior

What must the comprehensive community based DWI programs seek to accomplish?

Ultimately, nothing less than fundamental behavioral change, on a widespread basis. The goal is to encourage more Americans to:

  • Avoid committing DWI, either by avoiding or controlling drinking prior to driving or by selecting alternative transportation.

  • Intervene actively to prevent others from committing DWI (for example, putting into practice the theme "friends don't let friends drive drunk")

  • Avoid riding with drivers who are impaired.

    The final test of the value of DWI countermeasures on the national, state and local levels is whether they succeed in getting significantly more people to modify their behavior. The programs also pursue other more immediate objectives that support or reinforce the ultimate goal. However, the ultimate goal is to change driving while impaired to an unacceptable form of behavior at all levels.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Two Approaches

• Prevention • Deterrence

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Pursuing the Goal: Two Approaches

How can we bring about these changes in behavior? How can we discourage impaired driving, prevent others from drinking and driving, and avoid becoming passive "statistics" by refusing to ride with drinking drivers?

Basically, there are two general approaches that must be taken to achieve this goal.

One: prevention -- gives promise of the ultimate, lasting solution to the DWI problem; but it will require a substantial amount of time to mature fully.

Two: deterrence -- only offers a partial or limited solution, but it is available right now.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Prevention

• Promote positive attitudes
• DWI is wrong
• No one has the right to endanger others • DWI cannot be tolerated or condoned

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Prevention: the Ultimate Solution

DWI countermeasures that strive for the ultimate achievement of drinking and driving behavioral changes have been grouped under the label "Prevention." There are many kinds of DWI preventive activities. Some are carried out by and in our schools, some through the mass media, some through concerned civic groups, and so forth. The various preventive efforts focus on different specific behaviors and address different target groups.

However, they seek to change drinking and driving behavior by promoting more positive attitudes and by fostering a set of values that reflects individual responsibilities toward drinking and driving.

Preventive countermeasures seek society's acceptance of the fact that DWI is wrong. Some people believe that drinking and driving is strictly an individual's personal business; that it is up to each person to decide whether or not to accept the risk of driving after drinking. Preventive activities try to dispel that outmoded and irresponsible belief. Instead, they promote the idea that no one has the right to endanger others by drinking and driving, or to risk becoming a burden (economically and otherwise) to others as a result of injuries suffered while drinking and driving. Realistically, everyone has an obligation not only to control their own drinking and driving, but also to speak up when others are about to commit the violation. Only when all of society views DWI as a negative behavior that cannot be tolerated or condoned, will the public's behavior begin to change. That is the long term solution.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Deterrence

• Driving public's fear of being arrested • Enough violators must be arrested to

convince public they will get caught

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Deterrence

• Deterrence is negative reinforcement • Strives to change DWI behavior.

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General deterrence of DWI is based on the driving public's fear of being arrested. If enough violators come to believe that there is a good chance that they will get caught, some of them (at least) will stop committing DWI at least some of the time.

Unless there is a real risk of being arrested, there will not be much fear of arrest.

Law enforcement must arrest enough violators to convince the public that they will get caught, if they continue to drive while impaired.

C. Relating Detection to Deterrence Potential

Deterrence: the Interim Solution

DWI countermeasures that seek a short cut to the ultimate goal of behavioral change usually are labeled "Deterrence." Deterrence can be described as negative reinforcement. Some deterrence countermeasures focus primarily on changing individual drinking and driving behavior while others seek to influence people to intervene into others' drinking and driving decisions.

The key feature of deterrence is that it strives to change DWI behavior without dealing directly with the prevailing attitudes about the rightness or wrongness of DWI. Deterrence uses a mechanism quite distinct from attitudinal change: fear of apprehension and application of sanctions.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

The Fear of Being Caught and Punished

• Fear long term costs and inconvenience

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The Fear of Being Caught and Punished

Large scale DWI deterrence programs try to control the DWI behavior of the driving public by appealing to the public's presumed fear of being caught. Most actual or potential DWI violators view the prospect of being arrested with extreme distaste. For some, the arrest, with its attendant handcuffing, booking, publicity and other stigmatizing and traumatizing features, is the thing most to be feared. For others, it is the prospective punishment (jail, stiff fine, etc.) that causes most of the concern. Still others fear most the long term costs and inconvenience of a DWI arrest: the license suspension and increased premiums for automobile insurance. For many violators the fear probably is a combination of all of these. Regardless, if enough violators are sufficiently fearful of DWI arrest, some of them will avoid committing the violation at least some of the time. Fear by itself will not change their attitudes; if they do not see anything inherently wrong with drinking and driving in the first place, the prospect of arrest and punishment will not help them come to this realization. However, fear sometimes can be enough to keep them from putting their anti-social attitudes into practice.

This type of DWI deterrence, based on the fear of being caught, is commonly called general deterrence. It applies to the driving public generally and presumably affects the behavior of those who have never been caught. There is an element of fear of the unknown at work here.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Specific Deterrence

  • Those who have been caught and arrested

  • Public must perceive that there is an appreciable risk of being caught and convicted

  • Enforcement creates and sustains fear of being caught

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Specific Deterrence

• Supportive roles: Legislators, Prosecutors, Judiciary, and Media

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Another type of DWI deterrence, called specific deterrence, applies to those who have been caught and arrested. The typical specific deterrent involves some type of punishment, perhaps a fine, involuntary community service, a jail term or action against the driver's license. The punishment is imposed in the hope that it will convince the specific violator that there is indeed something to fear as a result of being caught, and to emphasize that if there is a next time, the punishment will be even more severe. It is the fear of the known that comes into play in this case.

The concept of DWI deterrence through fear of apprehension or punishment seems sound. But will it work in actual practice? The crux of the problem is this: If the motoring public is to fear arrest and punishment for DWI, they must perceive that there is an appreciable risk of being caught and convicted if they commit the crime. If actual and potential DWI violators come to believe that the chance of being arrested is minimal, they will quickly lose whatever fear of arrest they may have felt.

Enforcement is the mechanism for creating and sustaining a fear of being caught for DWI. No specific deterrence program can amount to much, unless police officers arrest large numbers of violators; no punishment or rehabilitation program can affect behavior on a large scale unless it is applied to many people. General deterrence depends on enforcement -- the fear of being caught is a direct function of the number of people who are caught.

Obviously, the police alone cannot do the job. Legislators must supply laws that the police can enforce. Prosecutors must vigorously prosecute DWI violators, and the judiciary must adjudicate fairly and deliver the punishments prescribed by law. The media must publicize the enforcement effort and communicate the fact that the risk is not worth the probable outcome. Each of these elements plays a supportive role in DWI deterrence.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

How Much Deterrence is Enough?

For every DWI violator arrested, there are approximately 600 undetected DWI violations

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

How Great is the Risk?

  • Does the average DWI violator fear arrest?

  • Should they be afraid?

  • Intense publicity may enhance the

    perceived risk

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How much deterrence is enough?

Estimates from around the country vary. For every DWI violator arrested, there are approximately 600 undetected DWI violations.

According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2013), more than 28 million people drove under the influence of alcohol. According to the CDC (2011), the average person who reported driving under the influence also reported doing so an average of 28 times per year. This results in approximately 784 million DWIs per year. According to the FBI UCR, 1.28 million DWI arrests were made in 2012, which means law enforcement arrested approximately one out of every 612 DWI episodes.

How Great is the Risk?

The question now is, are violators afraid of being caught? More importantly, should they be afraid? Is there really an appreciable risk of being arrested if one commits DWI?

The answer to all of these questions unfortunately is: probably not. In most jurisdictions, the number of DWI arrests appears to fall short of what would be required to sustain a public perception that there is a significant risk of being caught.

Sometimes, it is possible to enhance the perceived risk, at least for a while, through intensive publicity. However, media "hype" without intensified enforcement has never been enough to maintain the fear of arrest for very long.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Changing the Odds

  • Arrest enough violators to convince many of them it can happen to them

  • As arrest rate increases, odds are that it will happen to them eventually

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Changing the Odds

If an arrest/violation ratio of 1 in 600 is not enough to make deterrence work, is it then reasonable to think that we can ever make deterrence work?

After all, if we doubled DWI arrests to 1 in 300, we would still be missing 299 violators for every one we managed to catch. If we increased arrests tenfold, to 1 in 60, 59 would escape for every one arrested. How much deterrence would that produce?

Surprisingly, it would probably produce quite a bit. We don't have to arrest every DWI offender every time in order to convince them that they have something to fear. We only have to arrest enough of them enough of the time to convince many of them that it can happen to them. As the arrest rate increases, the odds are that it will happen to them eventually. The law of averages (or cumulative probability) will catch up with them, and sooner than we might at first expect.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Can it be Done? Will it Work?

Realistic increase in DWI enforcement activity will induce a significant degree of general deterrence and a corresponding change in DWI behavior

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D. Evidence of Effective Detection and Effective Deterrence

Can it Be Done, and Will it Work?

Is there any evidence that a practical and realistic increase in DWI enforcement activity will induce a significant degree of general deterrence and a corresponding change in DWI behavior? Yes there is.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Stockton, California
3 Year Intensive Weekend DWI Enforcement

  • Before: Arrest/violation ratio of 1 in 2000 or less, 9% of weekend drivers were operating with BAC of 0.10 or higher

  • During: Intensive DWI enforcement on weekends nights

• Officers intensively trained, enforcement publicized, justice community coordinated

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Stockton, California

  • Arrests increased 500%

  • Weekend nighttime crashes decreased

    34%

  • Proportion of nighttime, weekend drivers

    legally under the influence dropped from 9% to 6%

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Several enforcement programs have succeeded in achieving significant DWI deterrence. Consider, for example, the three year intensive weekend DWI enforcement program in Stockton, California.

As early as 1975, a study showed that the city's total number of DWI arrests (700) were considerably less than one percent of the areas licensed number of drivers (130,000). The implication here was that Stockton police were only maintaining the arrest/violation ration of 1:2,000, or less. In addition, roadside surveys on Friday and Saturday nights disclosed that nine percent of the drivers were operating with BAC's of 0.10 or higher.

Then things changed.

Beginning in 1976 and continuing at planned intervals through the first half of 1979, Stockton police conducted intensive DWI enforcement on weekend nights. The officers involved were extensively trained. The enforcement effort was heavily publicized and additional equipment (PBTs and cassette recorders) was made available. The police effort was closely coordinated with the District Attorney's office, the County Probation office, and other allied criminal justice and safety organizations.

All this paid off. By the time the project came to a close (in 1979) DWI arrests had increased by over 500%, and weekend nighttime collisions had decreased by 34%, and the number of operators committing DWI dropped one third.

The implication of this study, and of other similar studies, is that for every DWI violator actually arrested for DWI, three others are contacted by police officers, but are not arrested for DWI. It is clear that significant improvement in the arrest rate could be achieved if officers were more skilled at DWI detection.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Improve DWI Detection

Keys to success:
• OfficersskilledatDWIdetection
• Willing to arrest all violators detected • Policiesandapplicationsupportedby

agency
In each state where the number of DWI arrests increased, alcohol related crash fatalities decreased

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Detection: Key to Deterrence

  • Deterrence can vastly exceed the level of enforcement officers achieve

  • In Stockton, increased enforcement effort convinced at least one third of the violators to change their behavior substantially

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Improved DWI detection can be achieved in virtually every jurisdiction in the country. The keys to success are police officers who are:

  • Skilled at DWI detection

  • Willing to arrest every DWI violator who is detected

  • Supported by their agencies in all aspects of this program, from policy through practical application

    Since the historical Stockton study numerous states have conducted similar studies to determine the degree of effect that DWI arrests would have on alcohol related fatalities in general, and total fatalities in particular. Most of these studies were conducted between 1978 and 1986.

    The results of these studies graphically illustrated in each state that when the number of arrests for DWI increased, the percentage of alcohol related fatalities decreased. Further, the results of a study conducted in Florida from 1981-1983, showed that when DWI arrests per licensed driver increased, total fatalities decreased (12 month moving average).

    Detection: The Key to Deterrence

    It is important to understand how increased DWI enforcement can affect deterrence. Deterrence can vastly exceed the level of enforcement officers achieve on any given night. True, weekend DWI arrests can increase by as much as 500 %, as in the Stockton study.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Example of General Deterrence

When arrest/violation ratio is 1 in 400:

  • Many violators WILL be caught

  • General perception level of being caught increases

  • Behavior changes DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

• • • •

Increased DWI Detection Skills

Community benefits
Officers recognize cues and clues Gained confidence in field sobriety tests Fewer violators stopped avoided arrest

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The law of averages quickly starts to catch up with DWI drivers. Unless violators change their behavior, many of them will be caught, or at least will have known someone who has been arrested. Coupled with the heavy publicity given to the enforcement effort, those experiences were enough to raise the perception level of apprehension among DWI operators that sooner or later they would be caught. As a result, many of them changed their behavior. This is the best example of general deterrence.

In addition, during the same time that DWI arrests went up over 500% in Stockton, citations for other traffic violations increased by a comparatively modest 99%. The implication is that Stockton's officers were stopping and contacting only twice as many possible violators as they had before, but they were coming up with more than five times as many arrests.

What have the results of these studies shown? Basically, they have shown that a community will benefit from their officers' increased skills at DWI detection. Principally because of their special training, the officers were better able to recognize "cues" of impairment when they observed vehicles in motion, and they were more familiar with the "clues" or human indicators of impairment exhibited by violators during personal contact. The officers also had more confidence in the field sobriety tests they used to investigate their suspects. The most important factor was that far fewer of the violators being stopped now avoided detection and arrest.

The difficulty in detecting DWI among operators personally contacted by officers has been well documented. Analysis of roadside survey and arrest data suggest that for every DWI violator arrested, three others actually have face to face contact with police officers but are allowed to go without arrest. Direct support of that inference was found in the Fort Lauderdale BAC study, where researchers demonstrated that police officers arrested only 22% of the DWI operators they contacted, whose BAC levels were subsequently shown to be between 0.10 and 0.20.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

DWI Detection Ability is Key

  • If violators are not arrested, attitudes and behaviors likely will continue or worsen

  • Use resources efficiently and improvement can be achieved

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The ability to detect DWI violators is the key to general deterrence and possibly, the greatest impediment to it. If we accept the three to one ratio of failed detections as being reasonably accurate, the implications are rather alarming. Consider the impact on a DWI violator's subsequent behavior when, after being stopped by the police, is allowed to continue driving. Very likely, these DWI violators and their friends will become even more convinced of their ability to handle drinking and driving. Further, they will come to believe that they will never be arrested because police officers can't determine when they are "over the limit." Instead of creating general DWI deterrence, this attitude breeds specific reinforcement. This helps to develop a feeling among DWI violators that they have nothing more to fear from police than an occasional ticket for a minor traffic offense.

On the positive side, the ratio of undetected to detected violations suggests that much can be accomplished with existing resources, if we use those resources as efficiently as possible. By just being able to improve detection skills of law enforcement officers we could experience an increase in the arrest/violation ratio without any increase in contacts.

This same, or better, degree of effectiveness can happen here.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Alcohol

A family of closely related chemicals whose molecules are made up of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Some Types of Alcohol

  • Methyl Alcohol (Methanol)

  • Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol)

  • Isopropyl Alcohol (Isopropanol)

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E. Physiology of Alcohol

A brief overview of alcohol:
Alcohol is the most abused drug in the United States.

"Alcohol" is the name given to a family of closely related and naturally occurring chemicals. Each of the chemicals that is called an "alcohol" contains a molecule chemists refer to as a "hydroxy radical." This radical contains one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom bonded together. The simplest alcohol has only one carbon atom, three hydrogen atoms, and one hydroxy radical. The next alcohol has two carbon atoms, five hydrogen atoms and one hydroxy radical. The third alcohol has three carbon atoms, seven hydrogen atoms and one hydroxy radical. That is how the alcohols differ from one another.

Alcohols are molecularly very similar and produce similar effects. They produce intoxicating effects when ingested into the human body. Only one of them is meant for human consumption. However, when ingested in substantial quantities it can cause death.

Three of the more commonly known alcohols are Methyl, Ethyl, and Isopropyl.

  • Methyl alcohol also known as Methanol or wood alcohol

  • Ethyl alcohol also known as Ethanol or beverage alcohol

  • Isopropyl Alcohol (Isopropanol) also known as rubbing alcohol

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Ethanol

Ethyl Alcohol
(Intended for human consumption)

Chemical Symbols ETOH
C2H5OH

HH
H C C OH

HH

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The ingestible alcohol is known as ethyl alcohol, or ethanol. Its chemical abbreviation is ETOH. The "ET" stands for "ethyl" and the "OH" represents the single oxygen atom bonded to one of the hydrogen atoms, ("hydroxy radical"). Ethanol is the variety of alcohol that has two carbon atoms. Two of ethanol's best known analogs are methyl alcohol (or methanol), commonly called "wood alcohol", and isopropyl alcohol (or isopropanol), also known as "rubbing alcohol".

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Ethanol Production - Fermentation

Yeast combines with sugars from fruit or grains in a chemical reaction that results in ETOH

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Ethanol Production - Distillation

Fermented beverage is boiled at a controlled temperature to extract and concentrate the ethanol fumes

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Ethanol is what interests us because it is the kind of alcohol that features prominently in impaired driving. Ethanol is beverage alcohol, the active ingredient in beer, wine, whiskey, liquors, etc. Ethanol production starts with fermentation. That is a kind of decomposition in which the sugars in fruit, grains and other organic materials combine with yeast to produce the chemical we call ethanol. This can occur naturally, as yeast spores in the air come into contact with decomposing fruit and grains. However, most of the ethanol in the world didn't ferment naturally, but was produced under human supervision.

When an alcoholic beverage is produced by fermentation, the maximum ethanol content that can be reached is about 14%. At that concentration, the yeast dies, so the fermentation stops. Obtaining a higher ethanol content requires a process called distillation. This involves heating the beverage until the ethanol "boils off", then collecting the ethanol vapor. It is possible to do this because ethanol boils at a lower temperature than does water.

Distilled spirits is the name we give to high ethanol concentration beverages produced by distillation. These include rum, whiskey, gin, vodka, etc. The ethanol concentration of distilled spirits usually is expressed in terms of proof, which is a number corresponding to twice the ethanol percentage.

For example, an 80 proof beverage has an ethanol concentration of 40%.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Common Drink Sizes

  • Bottleofbeer–12ouncesof fluid @ 5% alcohol equals 0.60 ounces of pure ethanol

  • Glassofwine–5ouncesoffluid @ 12% alcohol equals 0.60 ounces of pure ethanol

  • Shotofwhiskey(80proof)–1 and 1/2 ounces @ 40% alcohol equals 0.60 ounces of pure ethanol

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  • Over the millennia during which people have used and abused ethanol, some common sized servings of the different beverages have evolved. Beer, for example, is normally dispensed in 12 ounce servings. Since beer has an ethanol concentration of about four percent, the typical bottle or can of beer contains a little less than one half ounce of pure ethanol.

  • A standard glass of wine has about four ounces of liquid. Wine is about 12% alcohol, so the glass of wine also has a bit less than one half ounce of ethanol in it.

  • Whiskey and other distilled spirits are dispensed by the "shot glass", usually containing about one and one half ounce of fluid. At a typical concentration of 40% ethanol (80 proof), the standard shot of whiskey has approximately one half ounce of ethanol.

    Therefore, as far as their alcoholic contents are concerned, a can of beer, a glass of wine and a shot of whiskey are all the same.

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Alcohol is a CNS Depressant

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Ethanol is a Central Nervous System Depressant. It doesn't affect a person until it gets into their central nervous system, i.e., the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. Ethanol gets to the brain by getting into the blood. In order to get into the blood, it has to get into the body.

There are actually a number of different ways in which ethanol can get into the body. It can be inhaled. Ethanol fumes, when taken into the lungs, will pass into the bloodstream and a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC) will develop.

However, prolonged breathing of fairly concentrated fumes would be required to produce a significantly high BAC. Ethanol could also be injected, directly into a vein; it would then flow with the blood back to the heart, where it would be pumped first to the lungs and then to the brain. And, it could be inserted, as an enema, and pass quickly from the large intestine into the blood. But none of these methods are of any practical significance, because alcohol is almost always introduced into the body orally, i.e., by drinking.

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Absorption of Alcohol

Getting the ethanol out of the stomach and into

20%

20%

Stomach Walls

20%

Stomach Walls

2-44

the blood

20%

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Stomach Walls

Pylorus
80%

Once the ethanol gets into the stomach, it has to move into the blood. The process by which this happens is known as absorption. One very important fact that pertains to alcohol absorption is that it doesn't have to be digested in order to move from the stomach to the blood.

Another very important fact is that alcohol can pass directly through the walls of the stomach. These two facts, taken together, mean that, under the right circumstances, absorption of alcohol can be accomplished fairly quickly. The ideal circumstance for rapid absorption is to drink on an empty stomach.

When the alcohol enters the empty stomach, about 20% of it will make its way directly through the stomach walls. The remaining 80% will pass through the stomach and enter the small intestine, from which it is readily absorbed into the blood. Because the body doesn't need to digest the alcohol before admitting it into the bloodstream, the small intestine will be open to the alcohol as soon as it hits the stomach.

But what if there is food in the stomach? Suppose the person has had something to eat shortly before drinking, or eats food while drinking; will that affect the absorption of alcohol?

Yes it will. Food has to be at least partially digested in the stomach before it can pass to the small intestine. When the brain senses that food is in the stomach, it commands a muscle at the base of the stomach to constrict, and cut off the passage to the small intestine. The muscle is called the pylorus, or pyloric valve. As long as it remains constricted, little or nothing will move out of the stomach and into the small intestine. If alcohol is in the stomach along with the food, the alcohol will also remain trapped behind the pylorus. Some of the alcohol trapped in the stomach will begin to break down chemically before it ever gets into the blood. In time, as the digestive process continues, the pylorus will begin to relax, and some of the alcohol and food will pass through. But the overall effect will be to slow the absorption significantly. Because the alcohol only slowly gets into the blood, and because the body will continue to process and eliminate the alcohol that does manage to get in there, the drinker's BAC will not climb as high as it would have if he or she had drunk on an empty stomach.

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Distribution of Alcohol

Getting the ethanol into the body's tissues and organs

BASIC PRINCIPLE

Ethanol goes wherever it finds water

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

• •

• •

Distribution of Alcohol

Which parts of the body have lots of

water?

o Brain, liver, muscle tissue, kidneys
Which parts of the body do not have lots of water?

o Bones, fatty tissue
The average male is 68% water The average female is 55% water.

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Once the alcohol moves from the stomach into the blood, it will be distributed throughout the body by the blood. Alcohol has an affinity for water. The blood will carry the alcohol to the various tissues and organs of the body, and will deposit the alcohol in them in proportion to their water contents.

Brain tissue has a fairly high water content, so the brain receives a substantial share of the distributed alcohol. Muscle tissue also has a reasonably high water content, but fat tissue contains very little water. Thus, very little alcohol will be deposited in the drinker's body fat. This is one factor that differentiates alcohol from certain other drugs, notably PCP and THC, which are very soluble in fat.

The affinity of alcohol for water, and its lack of affinity for fat, helps explain an important difference in the way alcohol affects women and men. Pound for pound, the typical female's body contains a good deal less water than does the typical man's.

This is because women have additional adipose (fatty) tissue, designed in part to protect a child in the womb. A Swedish pioneer in alcohol research, E.M.P. Widmark, determined that the typical male body is about 68% water, the typical female only about 55%. Thus, when a woman drinks, she has less fluid -- pound for pound -- in which to distribute the alcohol.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Elimination of Alcohol

Getting the ethanol out of the body: • Direct excretion

o Breath o Sweat o Tears o Urine

• Metabolism
o Primarily in the liver

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As soon as the alcohol enters the blood stream, the body starts trying to get rid of it. Some of the alcohol will be directly expelled from the body chemically unchanged. For example, some alcohol will leave the body in the breath, in the urine, in sweat, in tears, etc. However, only a small portion (about 2-10%) of the ingested alcohol will be directly eliminated.

Most of the alcohol a person drinks is eliminated by metabolism. Metabolism is a process of chemical change. In this case, alcohol reacts with oxygen in the body and changes, through a series of intermediate steps, into carbon dioxide and water, both of which are directly expelled from the body.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Metabolism in the Liver

  • The liver burns the ethanol (i.e., causes a chemical reaction of ethanol with oxygen)

  • The process is aided by an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase

  • The ultimate products of the chemical reaction are carbon dioxide and water

  • Due to metabolism, the average person's BAC drops by about 0.015/hr

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Most of the metabolism of alcohol in the body takes place in the liver. An enzyme known as alcohol dehydrogenase acts to speed up the reaction of alcohol with oxygen. The speed of the reaction varies somewhat from person to person, and even from time to time for any given person. On the average, however, a person's blood alcohol concentration -- after reaching peak value -- will drop by about 0.015 per hour. For example, if the person reaches a maximum BAC of 0.15, it will take about ten hours for the person to eliminate all of the alcohol.

For the average sized male, a BAC of 0.015 is equivalent to about two thirds of the alcohol content of a standard drink (i.e., about two thirds of a can of beer, or glass of wine or shot of whiskey). For the average sized female, that same BAC would be reached on just one half of a standard drink. So the typical male will eliminate about two thirds of a drink per hour, while the typical female will burn up about one half of a drink in that hour.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Metabolism

How can we speed up the metabolism of alcohol?

• We can't speed it up
o Drinking coffee won't help o A cold shower won't help o Exercise won't help

The liver takes its time burning up the alcohol

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We can control the rate at which alcohol enters our bloodstream. For example, we can gulp down our drinks, or slowly sip them. We can drink on an empty stomach, or we can take the precaution of eating before drinking. We can choose to drink a lot, or a little. But once the alcohol gets into the blood, there is nothing we can do to affect how quickly it leaves. Coffee won't accelerate the rate at which our livers burn alcohol. Neither will exercise, or deep breathing, or a cold shower. We simply have to wait for the process of metabolism to move along at its own speed.

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Dose Response Relationships

People sometimes ask, "how 'high' is 'drunk'?" What is the "legal limit" for "drunk driving"? How much can a person drink before becoming "impaired"? Depends... Time? Sex? Weight? Drinking on an empty stomach? A couple of beers can do it.

There is no simple answer to these or similar questions, except to say that any amount of alcohol will affect a person's ability to drive to some degree. It is true that the laws of nearly all States establish a BAC limit at which it is explicitly unlawful to operate a vehicle. In those cases, that "limit" is 0.08 BAC. But every State also makes it unlawful to drive when "under the influence" of alcohol, and the law admits the possibility that a particular person may be under the influence at much lower BACs.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

How Much Alcohol to Reach a BAC of 0.08

  • 175 lbs. Male

  • Drinking on an Empty Stomach

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How much alcohol does someone have to drink to reach these kinds of BACs?

Obviously, as we've already seen, it depends on how much time the person spends drinking, on whether the person is a man or a woman, on how large the person is, on whether the drinking takes place on an empty stomach, and on certain other factors. But let's take as an example a 175 pound man. If he drinks two beers, or two shots of whiskey, in quick succession on an empty stomach, his BAC will climb to slightly above 0.04. Two more beers will boost him above 0.08. One more will push him over 0.10. In one respect, then, it doesn't take very much alcohol to impair someone: "a couple of beers" can do it.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Blood Alcohol Concentration

What does it mean?

  • BAC is the number of grams of alcohol

    found in 100 milliliters of the person's

    blood

  • Example – If a person has a BAC of .08,

    then there is eight one-hundredths of a gram of alcohol in every 100 milliliters of the person's blood

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But in another respect, when we contrast alcohol with virtually any other drug, we find that impairment by alcohol requires a vastly larger dose than does impairment by the others. Consider exactly what a BAC of 0.08 means. Blood alcohol concentration is expressed in terms of the "number of grams of ethanol in every 100 milliliters of blood". Therefore, 0.08 means that there is 0.08 grams (g) of ethanol in every 100 milliliters (mL) of blood. You will find that BAC results are reported in a variety of units. Two common variations are milligrams/milliliters and percent. There are 1000 milligrams (mg) in one gram; therefore, 0.08 grams equals 80 milligrams (mg) and a BAC of 0.08 would be reported as 80 mg of ethanol/100 mL of blood. Percent means parts per one hundred. In this example 0.08 grams/100 milliliters of blood is equivalent to 0.08 % BAC.

Note: The term BAC is used in the manual. However, it should be understood to refer to either Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) or Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) depending on the legal requirements of the jurisdiction.

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

QUESTIONS?

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Session 2 – Detection and General Deterrence

Test Your Knowledge

  1. The average DWI violator commits that violation _____ times a year

  2. In typical enforcement jurisdictions one DWI violation in _____ results in arrest

  3. In the Fort Lauderdale study, police officers arrested _____ % of the drivers they contacted whose BACs were .10 to .20.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

  1. In typical enforcement jurisdictions one DWI violation in _______ results in arrest.

  2. In the Fort Lauderdale study, police officers arrested _____% of the drivers they contacted whose BACs were .10 to .20.

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  1. Name three different chemicals that are alcohols.

  2. Which of these is beverage alcohol, intended for human consumption?

  3. What is the chemical symbol for beverage alcohol?

  4. What is the name of the chemical process by which beverage alcohol is produced naturally?

  5. What is the name of the process used to produce high concentration beverage alcohol?

  6. Multiple choice: Blood alcohol concentration is the number of of alcohol in every 100 milliliters of blood.
    a. Grams
    b. Milligrams

c. Nanograms

Revised: 10/2015

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Session 2 Page 40 of 43

  1. True or false: Pound for pound, the average woman contains more water than does the average man.

  2. What do we mean by the "proof" of an alcoholic beverage?

  3. Every chemical that is an "alcohol" contains what three elements?

  4. True or false: Most of the alcohol that a person drinks is absorbed into the blood via the small intestine.

  5. What is the name of the muscle that controls the passage from the stomach to the lower gastrointestinal tract?

  6. True or false: Alcohol can pass directly through the stomach walls and enter the bloodstream.

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  1. Multiple choice: Suppose a man and a woman who both weigh 160 pounds arrived at a party and started to drink at the same time. And suppose that, two hours later, they both have a BAC of 0.10. Chances are ....
    a. He had more to drink than she did.

    b. They drank just about the same amount of alcohol. c. He had less to drink than she did.

  2. In which organ of the body does most of the metabolism of the alcohol take place?

  3. What is the name of the enzyme that aids the metabolism of alcohol?

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  1. Multiple choice: Once a person reaches their peak BAC, it will drop at a rate of about per hour.

    a. 0.025 b. 0.015 c. 0.010

  2. True or False: It takes about thirty minutes for the average 175 pound man to "burn off" the alcohol in one 12 ounce can of beer.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Learning Objectives

Become familiar with:
• Elements of DWI offenses

• Implied consent
• Chemical test evidence • Case law

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-2

An understanding of impaired driving laws that apply in your jurisdiction is critical to successful DWI enforcement.

All states (and many local jurisdictions) have their own impaired driving laws. While the specific language of these laws may vary significantly, most include the following provisions:

  • DWI Law

  • Per Se law

  • Implied Consent

  • Preliminary Breath Testing

    At the conclusion of this session, participants will be familiar with:

  • Elements of DWI offenses

  • Provisions of implied consent

  • The relevance of chemical test evidence

  • Precedents established through case law

    In this session impaired driving laws are discussed in detail. The illustrations provided are drawn from the Uniform Vehicle Code. You are responsible for learning whether and how each law applies in your jurisdiction.

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CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. DWI Statute: Driving While Under the Influence ........................... Instructor-Led Presentations B. Per Se Statute: Driving With a Prohibited Blood Alcohol Concentration
C. Implied Consent .......................................................................................... Reading Assignments D. Preliminary Breath Testing

E. Case Law Review

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

DWI Statute

It is unlawful for any person to operate or be in physical control of any vehicle within this state while under the influence of alcohol and/or any drug.

- § 11-901 Uniform Vehicle Code (Millennium Ed. 2000)

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-3

Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Probable Cause for DWI Arrest

Opinion based on totality of circumstances that there is probable cause to believe Defendant committed crime (violation) of DWI

* All elements of crime need to be present

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-4

A. DWI Statute: Driving While Under the Influence

A state's DWI statute may be subtitled Driving While Under the Influence, or something similar. Typically the statute describes the who, what, where and how of the offense in language.

DWI Violation Arrest

In order to arrest someone for a basic DWI violation, a law enforcement officer must have probable cause to believe that all elements of the offense are present. That is, the officer must believe that:

The person in question was operating or in actual physical control of a vehicle (truck, van, automobile, motorcycle, even bicycle, according to specific provisions in various states) while under the influence of alcohol, another drug, or both.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Conviction

Criminal offense – establish facts “beyond a reasonable doubt”

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-5

Conviction

In order to convict a person of DWI, it is necessary to establish that all elements were present. • Operation

• Control
• Vehicle
• Impairment

If DWI is a criminal offense, the facts must be established "beyond a reasonable doubt." If DWI is a violation, the standard of proof may be less. In either case, it Is the officer's responsibility to collect and thoroughly document all evidence for use at trial.

In some States, an operator may be charged with a non-criminal alcohol-related violation and the standard of proof may be less.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Per Se Statute (Example)

It is unlawful for any person to:

  • Operate or be in physical control

  • Of any vehicle

  • Within this state

  • While having a BAC at or above the state's level

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-6

B. Per Se Statute: Driving with a Prohibited Blood Alcohol Concentration

Most states include in their DWI statutes a provision making it illegal to drive with a prescribed blood alcohol concentration (BAC). This provision, often called a Per Se law, creates another alcohol-related driving offense which is related to, but different from the DWI offense. Following is a typical Per Se provision:

It is unlawful for any person to:

  • Operate or be in physical control

  • Of any vehicle

  • Within this state

  • While having a blood alcohol concentration at or above state's level.

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Session 3 Page 5 of 16

Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Per Se and DWI

Each defines a separate offense:
• DWI–drivingwhileunderinfluence

• Chemical test is some evidence
• PerSe–operatewhilehavingmorethan

legal percent of alcohol in blood or breath • Chemical test is conclusive evidence

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-7

The Per Se law does not replace every other DWI statute. Rather, the two can be prosecuted at the same time. Each defines a separate offense:

  • The DWI law makes it an offense to drive while under the influence of alcohol and/or any drug.

  • The Per Se law makes it an offense to drive while having more than a certain percentage of alcohol in the blood or breath.

    For the DWI offense, the chemical test result is some evidence. For the Per Se offense, the chemical test result is conclusive evidence.

    The principal purpose of the Per Se law is to aid in prosecution of DWI offenders. It is not necessary for the prosecutor to show that the driver was "under the influence." It is sufficient for the state to show that the driver's BAC was at or above the state's level.

    Important to remember, an officer must still have probable cause to believe that the driver is impaired before making an arrest. Implied consent usually requires that the driver be arrested before the request of a chemical test. The law also requires that the arrest be made for "acts alleged to have been committed while operating a vehicle while under the influence." Therefore, the officer usually must establish probable cause that the offense has been committed and make a valid arrest before the chemical test can be requested.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Per Se Summary

  • Continue to rely on your detection training and experience

  • When making a DWI arrest assume chemical tests will not be available

  • Document all observations in detail: Thorough documentation is critical

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-8

Per Se Summary

Police officers dealing with impaired drivers must continue to rely primarily on their own training and experience in detection to determine whether an arrest should be made. It is impossible to obtain a legally admissible chemical test result until after the arrest has been made. Sometimes drivers will refuse the chemical test after they have been arrested. Then the case will depend primarily upon the officer's observations and ability to articulate their testimony. When making a DWI arrest, always assume that the chemical test evidence will not be available. It is critical that you organize, document, and present your observations and testimony in a clear and convincing manner.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Elements of Implied Consent

  • Operates or controls motor vehicle

  • Operator shall be deemed to have given

    consent to chemical test to determine

    blood alcohol and/or drug content

  • When arrested for DWI

  • Drivers who refuse may be subject to

    license sanctions

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-9

Implied consent states drivers must submit to a chemical test(s). The law provides penalties for refusal to submit to the test. The law may also provide that the individual's driver's license may be suspended or revoked if the refusal is found to be unreasonable. The purpose of implied consent is to encourage those arrested for DWI to submit to a chemical test so that valuable evidence may be obtained.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Legal Presumptions

BAC _____or more

• Presumed under the influence

Less than _____

• Presumed not under the influence

At least _____ but below _____

• No presumption

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-10

Legal presumptions define the significance of the scientific chemical test evidence.

For example, if the chemical test shows that the person's blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is .08 or more it shall be presumed that the person is under the influence.

In this state – If the test shows that the BAC is _____ or less, it shall be presumed that the person is not under the influence.

If the test shows that the BAC is more than but less than , there is no presumption as to whether the person is or is not under the influence. The weight of the chemical test evidence is presumptive of alcohol influence, not conclusive.

The fact finder (court or jury) may accept the legal presumption and conclude that the driver was or was not impaired on the basis of the chemical test alone. However, other evidence such as testimony about the defendant's driving, odor of alcohol, appearance, behavior, movements, speech, etc. may be sufficient to overcome the presumptive weight of the chemical test.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Example Number 1

Is it possible for a person whose BAC is above the state's per se or presumptive level to be acquitted of DWI?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-11

It is possible for a person whose BAC at the time of arrest is above the per se or presumptive level legal limit to be acquitted of DWI. It is also possible for a person whose BAC at the time is below the per se or presumptive level to be convicted of DWI. Consider the following examples:

Example 1

A driver is arrested for DWI. A chemical test administered to the driver shows a BAC of 0.13. At the subsequent trial, the chemical test-evidence is introduced. In addition, the arresting officer testifies about the defendant's driving, appearance and behavior. The testimony is confusing and unclear.

Another witness testifies that the driver drove, behaved and spoke normally. The court finds the defendant not guilty of DWI.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Example Number 2

Is it possible for a person whose BAC was below the state's per se or presumptive level to be convicted of DWI?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-12

Example 2

A driver is arrested for DWI. A chemical test administered to the driver shows a BAC of 0.05. At the subsequent trial, the chemical test evidence is introduced. In addition, the arresting officer testifies about the defendant's driving, odor of alcohol, appearance, slurred speech, and inability to perform divided attention field sobriety tests. The testimony is clear and descriptive. The court finds the defendant guilty of DWI.

The difference in outcomes in the two examples cited is directly attributable to how well the arresting officer articulates the evidence other than the chemical test. Remember that the chemical test provides presumptive evidence of alcohol influence; it does not provide conclusive evidence. While the "legal limit" in a given jurisdiction may be 0.08 BAC, many people will demonstrate impaired driving long before that "legal limit" is reached.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Preliminary Breath Testing (PBT)

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-13

D. Preliminary Breath Testing

Description

Many states have enacted preliminary breath testing (PBT) laws. These laws permit a police officer to request a driver suspected of DWI to submit to a roadside breath test prior to arrest. PBT laws vary significantly from one state to another.

Application

PBT results may be used to assist in determining whether an arrest should be made. The results may not be admissible as substantive evidence against the defendant in court. Discuss state laws regarding admissibility of PBT results. However, PBT laws may provide statutory or administrative penalties if the driver refuses to submit to the test. These penalties may include license suspension, fines or other sanctions.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

• •

• •

Case Law Reviews

Landmark court decisions relevant to the admissibility of Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFSTs) and Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN)

Challenges based on:
Scientific validity and reliability Relationship of HGN to specific BAC level Officer training, experience, and application

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-14

Session 3 – The Legal Environment

SFST State-Specific Case Law

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-15

E. Case Law Reviews

The following cases are landmark court decisions relevant to the admissibility of Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFSTs) and Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN). Challenges to the admissibility have been based on (1) scientific validity and reliability; (2) relationship of HGN to specific BAC level; and (3) officer training, experience, and application.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

HGN State-Specific Case Law

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-16

Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Search and Seizure State-Specific Case Law

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-17

Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Other Relevant State-Specific Case Law

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-18

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Case Law Summary

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-19

TO SUMMARIZE:

The prevailing trend in court is to accept HGN as evidence of impairment, provided the proper scientific foundation is laid. However, most courts consistently reject any attempt to derive a quantitative estimate of BAC from HGN. Additionally, officers should recognize the relevance of administering the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests in accordance with the NHTSA/IACP guidelines.

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Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Test Your Knowledge

1. If DWI is a criminal offense, the standard of proof is _____.

2. The purpose of implied consent is _____.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-20

Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Test Your Knowledge

3. For the Per se offense, chemical test result is _____ evidence.

4. The Per Se law makes it unlawful to _____.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-21

Session 3 – The Legal Environment

Test Your Knowledge

  1. The PBT law permits a police officer to request a driver suspected of DWI to _____.

  2. PBT results are used to help determine _____.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 3-22

INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following sentences.

  1. If DWI is a criminal offense, the standard of proof is _______.

  2. The purpose of implied consent is _______.

  3. For the Per se offense, chemical test result is _______ evidence.

  4. The Per Se law makes it unlawful to _______.

  5. The PBT law permits a police officer to request a driver suspected of DWI to _______.

  6. PBT results are used to assist in determining ________.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Learning Objectives

• Three phases of detection
• Tasks and key decision of each phase • Uses of a standard note taking guide

• Guidelines for effective testimony

  • Conduct a thorough pre-trial review of all

    evidence and prepare for testimony

  • Provide clear, accurate and descriptive

    direct testimony concerning DWI Investigations

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-2

Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

  • Describe the three phases of detection.

  • Describe the tasks and key decision of each phase.

  • Discuss the uses of a standard note taking guide.

  • Discuss guidelines for effective testimony.

    Detection is both the most important and difficult task in the DWI enforcement effort. If officers fail to detect DWI offenders, the DWI countermeasures program will ultimately fail. If officers do not detect and arrest DWI offenders, then prosecutors cannot prosecute them, the courts and driver licensing officials cannot impose sanctions on them, and treatment and rehabilitation programs will go unused.

    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. Three Phases of Detection................................................................Instructor-Led Presentation B. DWI Investigation Field Notes .................................................................... Reading Assignments C. Courtroom Testimony

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

DWI Detection

The entire process of identifying and gathering evidence to determine if a subject should be arrested for a DWI violation.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-3

The term DWI detection has been used in many different ways. Consequently it does not mean the same thing to all law enforcement officers. For the purposes of this training, DWI detection is defined as: The entire process of identifying and gathering evidence to determine if a subject should be arrested for a DWI violation.

Detection begins when the officer develops the first suspicion of a DWI violation.

Detection ends when the officer decides whether or not there is sufficient probable cause to arrest the driver for DWI. Your attention may be called to a particular vehicle or individual for a variety of reasons. The precipitating event may be a loud noise, an obvious equipment or moving violation, behavior that is unusual, but not necessarily illegal, or almost anything else. Initial detection may carry with it an immediate suspicion that the driver is impaired; or a slight suspicion; or even no suspicion at all. In any case, it sets in motion a process wherein you focus on a particular vehicle or individual and have the opportunity to observe that vehicle or individual and to gather additional evidence.

The detection process ends when you decide either to arrest or not to arrest the individual for DWI. That decision is based on all of the evidence that has come to light since your attention was first drawn to the vehicle or individual. Effective DWI enforcers do not leap to the arrest/no arrest decision. Rather, they proceed carefully through a series of intermediate steps, each of which helps to identify the collective evidence.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

DWI Detection Phases

  • Phase One – Vehicle in Motion

  • Phase Two – Personal Contact

  • Phase Three – Pre-Arrest Screening

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-4

A. Three Phases of Detection

The typical DWI contact involves three separate and distinct phases:

  • Phase One: Vehicle in motion

  • Phase Two: Personal contact

  • Phase Three: Pre-arrest screening

    In Phase One, you usually observe the driver operating the vehicle.

    In Phase Two, after you have stopped the vehicle, there usually is an opportunity to observe and speak with the driver face to face.

    In Phase Three, you usually have an opportunity to administer Standardized Field Sobriety Tests to the driver to determine impairment.

    In addition to SFSTs, some jurisdictions may allow you to administer other field sobriety tests, and/or a preliminary breath test (PBT) to verify that alcohol is the cause of the impairment. PBTs can be used to assist in making an arrest decision and should rarely be the only factor in deciding to arrest. PBTs should be used after administering SFSTs.

    The DWI detection process does not always include all three phases. Sometimes there are DWI detection contacts in which Phase One is absent. These are cases in which you have no opportunity to observe the vehicle in motion. This may occur at the crash scene, at a roadblock or checkpoint, or when you have responded to a request for motorist assistance. Sometimes there are DWI contacts in which Phase Three is absent. There are cases in which you would not administer formal tests to the driver. This may occur when the driver is grossly impaired, badly injured, or refuses to submit to tests.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Decisions and Possible

Outcomes

Decisions

  • Phase One - Stop?

  • Phase Two - Exit?

  • Phase Three - Arrest?

    Possible Outcomes • Yes-Doitnow

• Wait - Look for more evidence • No-Don'tdoit

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-5

In each of the three phases, there will be decisions and possible outcomes.

Major Tasks and Decisions

Each detection phase usually involves two major tasks and one major decision.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Decisions

  • Phase One: Vehicle in Motion - Should I stop the vehicle?

  • Phase Two - Personal Contact - Should the driver exit?

  • Phase Three - Pre-arrest Screening - Is there probable cause to arrest the suspect for DWI?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-6

In Phase One: Your first task is to observe the vehicle in operation. Based on this observation, you must decide whether there is sufficient cause to command the driver to stop. Your second task is to observe the stopping sequence. You may want to take a picture of the vehicle or scene, especially if the vehicle was involved in a crash.

In Phase Two: Your first task is to observe and interview the driver face to face. Based on this observation, you must decide whether there is sufficient cause to instruct the driver to step from the vehicle for further investigation. Your second task is to observe the driver's exit and walk from the vehicle. You may want to take a photo of the defendant.

In Phase Three: Your first task is to administer structured, formal psychophysical tests. Based on these tests, you must decide whether there is sufficient probable cause to arrest the driver for DWI. Your second task is then to arrange for (or administer) a Preliminary Breath Test.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Possible Outcomes

Yes - Do It Now

  • Phase One: Yes, there are reasonable

    grounds to stop the vehicle

  • Phase Two: Yes, there is enough reason

    to suspect impairment to justify getting the driver out of the vehicle for further investigation

  • Phase Three: Yes, there is probable cause to arrest driver for DWI right now

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-7

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Possible Outcomes

Wait - Look for Additional Evidence

  • Phase One: Don't stop the vehicle yet; keep following and observing it longer

  • Phase Two: Don't get the driver out of the car yet; keep talking to and observing the driver longer

  • Phase Three: Don't arrest the driver yet; administer another field sobriety test before deciding

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-8

Each of the major decisions can have any one of three different outcomes: • Yes-DoitNow
• Wait - Look for Additional Evidence
• No-Don'tDoIt

Consider the following examples.

Yes - Do It Now

Phase One: Yes, there are reasonable grounds to stop the vehicle.

Phase Two: Yes, there is enough reason to suspect impairment to justify getting the driver out of the vehicle for further investigation.

Phase Three: Yes, there is probable cause to arrest the driver for DWI right now.

Wait - Look for Additional Evidence

Phase One: Don't stop the vehicle yet; keep following and observing it a bit longer.

Phase Two: Don't get the driver out of the car yet; keep talking to and observing the driver a bit longer. (This option may be limited if the officer's personal safety is at risk.)

Phase Three: Don't arrest the driver yet; administer another field sobriety test before deciding.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Possible Outcomes

No - Don't do it

  • Phase One: No, there are no grounds

    for stopping that vehicle

  • Phase Two: No, there isn't enough

    evidence of DWI to justify administering

    field sobriety tests

  • Phase Three: No, there is not sufficient

    probable cause to believe this driver has committed DWI

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-9

Don't Do It:

Phase One: No, there are no grounds for stopping that vehicle.
Phase Two: No, there isn't enough evidence of DWI to justify administering field sobriety tests.

Phase Three: No, there is not sufficient probable cause to believe this driver has committed DWI.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

The Arrest Decision is Based on All Evidence Accumulated During All Three Detection Phases

Initial Observation of Vehicle Operation

Face to Face Observation and Interview

Psychophysical Tests

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Observation of the Stop

Observation of the Exit

Preliminary Breath Tests

4-10

In each phase of detection, you must determine whether there is sufficient evidence to establish the "reasonable suspicion" necessary to proceed to the next step in the detection process. It is always your duty to carry out whatever tasks are appropriate, to make sure that ALL relevant evidence of DWI is gathered.

Officer Responsibility

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

DWI Detection – Phase One

  • What is the vehicle doing?

  • Do I have grounds to stop the vehicle?

  • How does the driver respond to my signal to stop?

  • How does the driver handle the vehicle during the stopping sequence?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-11

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

DWI Detection – Phase Two

• Vehicle approach: What do I see?
• Talking with driver: What do I hear, see and

smell?
• How does the driver respond to questions? • Should I instruct the driver to exit vehicle? • How does the driver exit?
• When the driver walks toward the side of

the road, what do I see?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-12

DWI Detection – Phase One
Answers to questions like these can aid you in DWI detection. Phase One:

  • What is the vehicle doing?

  • Do I have grounds to stop the vehicle?

  • How does the driver respond to my signal to stop?

  • How does the driver handle the vehicle during the stopping sequence?

    Phase Two:

    • When I approach the vehicle, what do I see?

    • When I talk with the driver, what do I hear, see and smell?

    • How does the driver respond to my questions?

    • Should I instruct the driver to exit the vehicle?

    • How does the driver exit?

    • When the driver walks toward the side of the road, what do I see?

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

DWI Detection – Phase Three

• Should I administer field sobriety tests to the driver?

• How does the driver perform those tests? • What exactly did the driver do wrong when

performing the tests?
• Do I have probable cause to arrest for DWI?
• Should I administer a preliminary breath test? • What are the results of the preliminary breath

test?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-13

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Successful DWI Detection

  • Know what to observe

  • Ask the right kinds of questions

  • Use the right kinds of tests

  • Interpret, document, and articulate all

    observations thoroughly

  • Be motivated and apply your knowledge

    and skills

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-14

Phase Three:

  • Should I administer field sobriety tests to the driver?

  • How does the driver perform those tests?

  • What exactly did the driver do wrong when performing the tests?

  • Do I have probable cause to arrest for DWI?

  • Should I administer a preliminary breath test?

  • What are the results of the preliminary breath test?

    The most successful DWI detectors are those officers who:

  • Know what to observe

  • Ask the right kinds of questions

  • Use the right kinds of tests

  • Interpret, document, and articulate all observations thoroughly

  • Be motivated and apply your knowledge and skills

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Note Taking and Testimony

  • Graphically describe your observations

  • Convey evidence clearly and

    convincingly

  • Fieldnotesareonlyasgoodasthe information they contain

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-15

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Use Clear Convincing Language

What is Vague Versus Clear?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-16

Note Taking and Testimony

A basic skill needed for DWI enforcement is the ability to graphically describe your observations. Just as detection is the process of collecting evidence, description largely is the process of conveying or articulating evidence.

Successful description demands the ability to convey evidence clearly and convincingly. Your challenge is to communicate evidence to people who weren't there to see, hear and smell the evidence themselves. Your tools are the words that make up your written report and verbal testimony. You must communicate with the supervisor, the prosecutor, the judge, the jury and even with the defense attorney. You are trying to "paint a word picture" for those people, to develop a sharp mental image that allows them to "see" what you saw; "hear" what you heard; and "smell" what you smelled.

Officers with the knowledge, skills and motivation to select the most appropriate words for both written reports and courtroom testimony will communicate clearly and convincingly, making them more successful in DWI prosecution.

Use Clear and Convincing Language

Field notes are only as good as the information they contain. Reports must be clearly written and events accurately described if the reports are to have evidentiary value. One persistent problem with DWI incident reports is the use of vague language to describe conditions, events and statements. When vague language is used, reports provide an inaccurate picture of what happened. Clear and complete field notes help in preparation for your testimony.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Vague

  • Made an illegal left turn on Jefferson

  • Drove erratically

  • Driver appeared drunk, shaking

Clear

• From Main, turned left (north bound) on Jefferson, which is one way south bound

• Weaving from side to side. Crossed center line twice and drove on shoulder three times

• Driver's eyes bloodshot; gaze fixed; Strong odor of alcoholic beverage on driver's breath

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-17

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Vague

• Vehiclestoppedin unusual fashion

• Vehiclecrossedthe center line

Clear

• Vehiclestruck,climbed curb; stopped on sidewalk

• Vehicledrifted completely into the opposing traffic lane

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-18

Consider the following examples. Vague Language and Clear Language

  • Made an illegal left turn on Jefferson

  • From Main, turned left (north bound) on Jefferson, which is one way south bound

  • Drove erratically

  • Weaving from side to side. Crossed center line twice and drove on shoulder three times

  • Driver appeared drunk, shaking

  • Driver's eyes bloodshot; gaze fixed; Strong odor of alcoholic beverage on driver's breath

  • Vehicle stopped in unusual fashion

  • Vehicle struck, climbed curb; stopped on sidewalk

  • Vehicle crossed the center line

  • Vehicle drifted completely into the opposing traffic lane

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Officer Must Be Able To

  • Recognize and interpret DWI evidence

  • Describe the evidence clearly and convincingly

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-19

B. DWI Investigation Field Notes

One of the most critical tasks in the DWI enforcement process is the recognition and retention of facts and clues that establish reasonable suspicion to stop, investigate and subsequently arrest persons suspected of DWI. The evidence gathered during the detection process must establish the elements of the violation, and must be completely documented to support successful prosecution of the defendant. This evidence is largely sensory (sight, smell, hearing) in nature, and therefore is extremely short lived.

You must be able to recognize and act on the facts and circumstances with which you are confronted. But you also must completely document your observations and describe them clearly and convincingly to secure a conviction. You may be inundated with evidence of DWI, i.e., sights, sounds, smells. You recognize this evidence, sometimes subconsciously, and on this evidence base your decisions to stop, to investigate and ultimately to arrest.

Since evidence of a DWI violation is short lived, you need a system and tools for recording field notes at scenes of DWI investigations.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Observations - Short-Lived Evidence

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-20

One way to improve the effectiveness of your handwritten field notes is to use a structured note taking guide. The guide makes it easy to record brief "notes" on each step of the detection process and ensures that vital evidence is documented.

The field notes provide the information necessary to complete required DWI report forms and assist you in preparing a written account of the incident. The field notes will also be useful if you are required to provide oral testimony, since they can be used to refresh your memory.

A model note taking guide is provided for your use. A brief description follows. Details are provided in subsequent units.

Note Taking Guide

Remember that you must document those actions which gave you reasonable suspicion or probable cause to justify further investigation of a suspected DWI incident.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

DWI Investigation Field Notes

I Name Address

D.O.B.
Vehicle Make Disposition Incident Location Date / /

Sex City/State

Soc. Sec. #
Year Lic. No. Passengers

Crash

Race Op. Lic. No.

State Yes No

/

/

Time

II Vehicle in Motion

Initial Observations Observation of Stop

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-21

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

DWI Investigation Field Notes

III Personal Contact Observation of Driver
Statements

Pre-Exit Sobriety Tests

Observation of the Exit Odors

Speech Attitude Clothing Other

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-22

  • Section I provides space to record basic information describing the subject, the vehicle, the location, and the date and time the incident occurred.

  • Section II provides space to record brief descriptions of the vehicle in motion (Detection Phase One), including initial observation of the vehicle in operation, and observation of the stopping sequence.

  • Section III provides space to record brief descriptions of the personal contact with the subject (Detection Phase Two), including observations of the driver.

    General Observations provides space to record the subject's manner of speech, attitude, clothing, etc. Any physical evidence collected should also be noted in this section.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

DWI Investigation Field Notes

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony
DWI Investigation Field Notes

IV Pre-Arrest Screening

• Equal Tracking Yes No • Equal Pupils Yes No • Resting Nyst. Yes No

Walk-and-Turn

Instructions Stage
• Cannot keep balance • Starts too soon

Walking Stage
• Stops walking
• Misses heel-toe
• Steps off line
• Raises arms
• Actual steps taken

Improper Turn (Describe) Cannot Do Test (Explain) Other:

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Left

Right

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

4-23

4-24

• Lack of smooth pursuit
• Dist. and sust. nystagmus at maximum deviation
• Nystagmus onset prior to 45 degrees
• Vertical Gaze Nystagmus Y or N (circle one) • Other _________________________________

One Leg Stand

L R Sways while balancing Uses arms to balance

First Nine Steps

Second Nine Steps

Other Field Sobriety Tests

Name of Test Describe Performance Name of Test Describe Performance Name of Test Describe Performance

  • Section IV provides space to record the results of all field sobriety tests that were administered, and the results of the preliminary breath test (PBT) if such a test was given.

  • Section V provides space to record the officer's general observations, such as the subject's manner of speech, attitude, clothing, etc. Any physical evidence collected should also be noted in this section.

    Since this is a note taking guide and space is limited, you will have to develop your own "shorthand" system. Your notes should be detailed and descriptive of the facts, circumstances or events being described. These notes may be used to refresh your memory and to write the narrative report documenting your observations to testify in court.

    NOTE: Field notes may be subpoenaed as evidence in court. It is important that any "shorthand" system you use be describable, usable, complete and consistent.

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Other

Hopping
Puts foot down

Type of Footwear

PBT (1) (optional) Time:___ Results:__

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

PBT (2) (optional) Time:___ Results:__

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Preparing Testimony

At time of incident:
• Recognize significant evidence
• Compile complete, accurate notes

• Prepare complete, accurate, detailed report

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-25

C. Courtroom Testimony

Testimonial evidence in DWI cases establishes that the defendant was in fact the driver and was under the influence. Your testimony should be clear, detailed, and concise. Requirements: Preparation at the scene and prior to trial.

To be effective, testimonial evidence must be clear and convincing. The first requirement for effective testimony is preparation. Testimony preparation begins at the time of the DWI incident. From the very beginning of the DWI contact, it is your responsibility to:

  • Recognize significant evidence

  • Compile complete, accurate field notes

  • Prepare a complete, accurate, detailed report

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Preparing Testimony

Prior to trial:

  • Review all paperwork

  • Review all other evidence

  • Mentally organize elements and evidence

  • Mentallyorganizetestimony

  • Identify potential issues

  • Discusswithprosecutor

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-26

Testimony preparation continues prior to trial. Just before the trial, you should:

  • Review field notes, incident report, narrative and other paperwork

  • Review other evidence, i.e., video, photographs, etc.

  • Mentally organize elements of offense, and the evidence available to prove each element

  • Mentally organize testimony to convey observations clearly and convincingly

  • Identify weak spots and/or potential issues with the case and decide how to address

    those issues

  • Discuss the case with the prosecutor

    The foundation for preparation and successful testimony is the relationship between the law enforcement officer(s) involved with the arrest and the prosecuting attorney(s) associated with the case. Effective communication and a clear understanding of each groups' objectives and expectations is essential for successful prosecution.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Chronology of Testimony

• Phase One: Vehicle in Motion
V Initial observations of vehicle
V Observations during stopping sequence

• Phase Two: Personal Contact V Face to face observations
V Statements

• Phase Three Pre-arrest screening V SFST's
V PBT

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-27

Chronology of Testimony

In court, your testimony should be organized chronologically and should cover each phase of the DWI incident:

Phase One: Vehicle in Motion – initial observation of vehicle, the driver or both including what first attracted your attention to the vehicle/driver and details about the driving before you initiated the traffic stop

Reinforcing cues, maneuvers or actions, observed after signaling the driver to stop, but before driver's vehicle came to a complete stop.

A “cue” is defined as a reminder or prompting as a signal to do something.

Phase Two: Personal Contact – face to face observations including personal appearance, statements and other evidence obtained during your initial contact with driver.

A “clue” is defined as something that leads to the solution of a problem.

Phase Three: Pre-arrest Screening – sobriety tests administered to the driver and the results of any preliminary breath tests.

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Arrest and Post Arrest Observations

  • The arrest itself; including procedures used to inform driver of arrest, admonish subject of rights, and so on

  • Defendant's actions, statements, and/or admissions subsequent to the arrest

  • Observation of defendant subsequent to the arrest; including not just what the

    defendant said but actions and reactions

  • The request for the chemical test; including the procedures used, admonition of rights and requirements, and so on

  • The conduct, actions, reactions, and results of the chemical test, if you were also the testing officer

  • The interview of the defendant, including any new observations, statements and/or admissions.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

QUESTIONS?

4-#

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-29

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Test Your Knowledge

DWI detection is defined as _____________ The three phases in a typical DWI contact

are:
Phase One ___________ Phase Two ___________ Phase Three __________

In Phase One, the officer usually has an opportunity to_________________________

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-30

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Test Your Knowledge

Phase Three may not occur if __________ In Phase Two, the officer must decide _______
Each major decision can have any one of _____ different outcomes.

These are ________________________.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-31

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following sentences. 1. DWI detection is defined as ___________

2. The three phases in a typical DWI contact are:

_________________
_________________
_________________

Phase One
Phase Two
Phase Three
3. In Phase One, the officer usually has an opportunity to __________

4. Phase Three may not occur if __________

5. In Phase Two, the officer must decide __________

6. Each major decision can have any one of 3 different outcomes. These are: __________

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Test Your Knowledge

At each phase of detection, the officer must determine _____________________ Evidence of DWI is largely ________ in nature

Law enforcement officers need a system and tools for recording field notes at scenes of DWI investigations because DWI evidence is _____.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-32

Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Test Your Knowledge

Testimony preparations begins_________ List two things the officer should do to prepare testimony just before the trial.
A. ______________________________ B. ______________________________

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-33

7. At each phase of detection, the officer must determine __________

8. Evidence of DWI is largely __________ in nature.

9. Law enforcement officers need a system and tools for recording field notes at scenes of DWI investigations because DWI evidence is __________.

10. Testimony preparations begins __________

11. List two of the following the officer should do to prepare testimony just before the trial.

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Session 4 - Overview of Detection, Note Taking, and Testimony

Test Your Knowledge

In court, the officer's testimony should be organized ________________.
Conditions and results of the chemical test are included in the arresting officer's testimony if _______________________.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 4-34

12. In court, the officer's testimony should be organized __________

13. Conditions and results of the chemical test are included in the arresting officer's testimony if __________

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Learning Objectives

  • Identify typical cues of Detection Phase One

  • Describe the observed cues clearly and convincingly

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-2

At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to:

  • Identify typical cues of Detection Phase One

  • Describe the observed cues clearly and convincingly
    CONTENT SEGMENTS................................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. Overview: Tasks and Decision....................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations B. Initial Observations: Visual Cues of Impaired Operation (Automobiles)..................... Video Presentation C. Initial Observations: Visual Cues of Impaired Operation (Motorcycles) ..................... Video Presentation D. Recognition and Description of Initial Cues.............................................. Instructor-Led Demonstrations E. Typical Reinforcing Cues of the Stopping Sequence .......................................... Participant Presentations F. Recognition and Description of Initial and Reinforcing Cues

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Should I Stop
the Vehicle? ?

Initial Observation of the Vehicle in Operation

Observation of the Stop

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-3

A. Overview: Tasks and Decision

Your first task in Phase One: Vehicle in Motion is to observe the vehicle in operation to note any initial cues of a possible DWI violation. At this point you must decide whether there is reasonable suspicion to stop the vehicle, either to conduct further investigation to determine if the driver may be impaired, or for another traffic violation. You are not committed to arresting the driver for DWI based on this initial observation, but rather should concentrate on gathering all relevant evidence that may suggest impairment. Your second task during phase one is to observe the manner in which the driver responds to your signal to stop, and to note any additional evidence of a DWI violation.

The first task, observing the vehicle in motion, begins when you first notice the vehicle, driver or both. Your attention may be drawn to the vehicle by such things as:

  • A moving traffic violation

  • An equipment violation

  • An expired registration or inspection sticker

  • Unusual driving actions, such as weaving within a lane or moving at a slower than normal speed

  • Evidence of drinking or drugs in vehicle

    If this initial observation discloses vehicle maneuvers or human behaviors that may be associated with impairment, you may develop an initial suspicion of DWI.

    Based upon this initial observation of the vehicle in motion, you must decide whether there is reasonable suspicion to stop the vehicle. At this point you have three choices:

  • Stop the vehicle.

  • Continue to observe the vehicle.

  • Disregard the vehicle.

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Alternatives to stopping the vehicle include:

  • Delaying the stop/no stop decision, in order to continue observing the vehicle

  • Disregarding the vehicle

    Whenever there is a valid reason to stop a vehicle, the officer should be alert to the possibility that the driver may be impaired by alcohol and/or other drugs.

    Once the stop command has been communicated to the suspect driver, the officer must closely observe the driver's actions and vehicle maneuvers during the stopping sequence.

    Sometimes, significant evidence of alcohol influence comes to light during the stopping sequence. In some cases, the stopping sequence might produce the first suspicion of DWI. Drivers impaired by alcohol and/or other drugs may respond in unexpected and dangerous ways to the stop command.

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

0.03

Slowed Reaction

0.05

Impaired Judgment

0.08 0.10 Impaired Poor

Common Symptoms of Alcohol Influence

Blood Alcohol Concentration

Vision

Coordination

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-4

B. Initial Observations: Visual Cues of Impaired Vehicle Operation (Automobiles)

Drivers who are impaired frequently exhibit certain effects or symptoms of impairment. These include:

  • Slowed reactions.

  • Impaired judgment as evidenced by a willingness to take risks.

  • Impaired vision.

  • Poor coordination.
    The next page presents common symptoms of alcohol influence.

    This unit focuses on alcohol impairment because research currently provides more information about the effects of alcohol on driving than it does about the effects of other drugs on driving. Remember that whether the driver is impaired, the law enforcement detection process is the same, and the offense is still DWI.

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Vehicle in Motion

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-5

The common effects of alcohol on the driver's mental and physical faculties lead to predictable driving violations and vehicle operating characteristics. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) sponsored research to identify the most common and reliable initial indicators of DWI. This research identified 24 cues, each with an associated high probability that the driver exhibiting the cue is impaired. These cues and their associated probabilities are described in the NHTSA publication, The Visual Detection of DWI Motorists.

They also are discussed in Vehicle in Motion, a video sponsored by NHTSA to assist law enforcement officers to recognize DWI detection cues.

(ANACAPA Sciences, DOT HS 808 654, 1997.)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration sponsored research to identify the most common and reliable initial indicators of DWI.

Research identified 100 cues, each providing a high probability indication that the driver is under the influence.

The list was reduced to 24 cues during three field studies involving hundreds of officers and more than 12,000 enforcement stops.

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Most Common and Reliable Initial Indicators of DWI

  • Problemsinmaintainingproperlane position

  • Speedandbrakingproblems

  • Vigilance problems

  • Judgmentproblems

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-6

The driving behaviors are presented in four categories:

  • Problems in maintaining proper lane position

  • Speed and braking problems

  • Vigilance problems

  • Judgment problems

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Problems Maintaining Proper Lane Position

  • Weaving

  • Weaving across lane line

  • Drifting

  • Straddling a lane line

  • Swerving

  • Almoststrikingobjectorvehicle

  • Turningwithawideradius

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-7

There is a brochure published by NHTSA that contains these cues. The title is “The Visual Detection of DWI Motorists” DOT HS 808 677.

The first category is:
Problems in maintaining proper lane position. [p=.50-.75]

  • Weaving.

  • Weaving across lane lines.

  • Drifting.

  • Straddling a lane line.

  • Swerving.

  • Almost striking object or vehicle.

  • Turning with a wide radius.

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Speed and Braking Problems

• Stopping problems
• Unnecessary acceleration or deceleration • Varying speed
• 10 mph or more under the speed limit

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-8

Speed and braking problems. [p=.45-.70].

  • Stopping problems (too far, too short, or too jerky).

  • Unnecessary acceleration or deceleration

  • Varying speed

  • 10 mph or more under the speed limit

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Vigilance Problems

  • Drivingwithoutheadlightsatnight

  • Failure to signal or signal inconsistent with

    action

  • Drivinginopposinglanesorwrongwayon

    one way

  • Slow response to traffic signals

  • Sloworfailuretorespondtoofficer's

    signals

  • Stoppinginlanefornoapparentreason

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-9

The third problem is vigilance problems. [P=.55-.65]. This category includes, but is not limited to:

  • Driving without headlights at night

  • Failure to signal or signal inconsistent with action

  • Driving in opposing lanes or wrong way on one way

  • Slow response to traffic signals

  • Slow or failure to respond to officer's signals

  • Stopping in lane for no apparent reason

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Judgment Problems

  • Following too closely

  • Improper or unsafe lane change

  • Illegal or improper turn

  • Driving on other than designated roadway

  • Stopping inappropriately in response to

    officer

  • Inappropriate or unusual behavior

  • Appearing to be impaired

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-10

Judgment problems. [P=.35-.90].

  • Following too closely (tailgating)

  • Improper or unsafe lane change

  • Illegal or improper turn

  • Driving on other than designated roadway

  • Stopping inappropriately in response to officer

  • Inappropriate or unusual behavior (throwing objects, arguing, etc.)

  • Appearing to be impaired

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Post Stop Clues

  • Difficulty with motor vehicle controls

  • Fumbling with driver license or registration

  • Difficulty exiting the vehicle

  • Repeating questions or comments

  • Swaying, unsteady, or balance problems

  • Leaning on the vehicle or other object

  • Slurred speech

  • Slow to respond to officer/officer must repeat

  • Provides incorrect information, changes answers

  • Odor of alcoholic beverage from the driver

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-11

The research also identified 10 post stop clues. [P > .85].

  • Difficulty with motor vehicle controls

  • Fumbling with driver license or registration

  • Difficulty exiting the vehicle

  • Repeating questions or comments

  • Swaying, unsteady, or balance problems

  • Leaning on the vehicle or other object

  • Slurred speech

  • Slow to respond to officer/officer must repeat

  • Provides incorrect information, changes answers

  • Odor of alcoholic beverage from the driver

    Explanation and illustration of the 24 detection cues.

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Motorcycle Visual Detection Cues

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-12

C. Initial Observations: Motorcycle Visual Detection Cues

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Motorcycle DUI Detection Guide Good cues (30 to 50% probability)

• Erraticmovementswhilegoingstraight • Operatingwithoutlightsatnight
• Recklessness
• Followingtooclosely

• Runningstoplightorsign • Evasion
• Travelingwrongway

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-14

Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Motorcycle DUI Detection Guide Excellent Cues (50% or Greater Probability)

• Drifting during turn or curve
• Trouble with dismount
• Trouble with balance at a stop
• Turning problems
• Inattentive to surroundings
• Inappropriate or unusual behavior • Weaving

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-13

Research has identified driving impairment cues for motorcyclists.

(ANACAPA Sciences, DOT HS 807 839, 1993.)

Excellent cues (50% or greater probability).

  • Drifting during turn or curve

  • Trouble with dismount

  • Trouble with balance at a stop

  • Turning problems (e.g., unsteady, sudden corrections, late braking, improper lean angle)

  • Inattentive to surroundings

  • Inappropriate or unusual behavior (e.g., carrying or dropping object, urinating at roadside, disorderly conduct, etc.)

• Weaving
Good Cues (30 to 50% probability)

  • Erratic movements while going straight

  • Operating without lights at night

  • Recklessness

  • Following too closely

  • Running stop light or sign

  • Evasion

  • Traveling wrong way

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Elements of the Driving Task

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-15

Relationship of Visual Cues to Impaired Divided Attention Capability

Driving is a complex task, composed of many parts:

  • Steering

  • Controlling accelerator

  • Signaling

  • Controlling brake pedal

  • Operating clutch (if applicable)

  • Operating gearshift (if applicable)

  • Observing other traffic

  • Observing signal lights, stop signs, other traffic control devices

  • Making decisions (whether to stop, turn, speed up, slow down, etc.)

  • Many other things

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Safe Driving Demands

Safe driving demands the ability to divide attention among numerous simultaneous tasks.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-16

In order to drive safely, a driver must be able to divide attention among all of these various activities. Under the influence of alcohol or many drugs, a person's ability to divide attention becomes impaired. The impaired driver tends to concentrate on certain parts of driving and to disregard other parts.

  • Alcohol has impaired ability to divide attention.

  • Driver is concentrating on steering and controlling the accelerator and brake.

  • Does not respond to the particular color of the traffic light.

    Some of the most significant evidence from all three phases of DWI detection can be related directly to the effects of alcohol and/or other drugs on divided attention ability.

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Vehicle In Motion Initial Cues

What do you see?
• Moving violation?
• Equipment violation? • Other violation?
• Unusual operation?
• Anything else?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-17

D. Recognition and Description of Initial Cues

What do you see?

  • Moving violation?

  • Equipment violation?

  • Other violation?

  • Unusual operation?

  • Anything else?

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Phase One: Task One
Initial Observation of Vehicle Operation

Requires the ability to:

  • Recognize evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence

  • Describe that evidence clearly and convincingly

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-18

Phase One: Task One Initial Observation of Vehicle Operation

The task of making initial observations of vehicle operation is the first step in the job of DWI detection. Proper performance of that task demands two distinct but related abilities:

  • Ability to recognize evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence.

  • Ability to describe that evidence clearly and convincingly.

    It is not enough that a police officer observe and recognize symptoms of impaired driving. The officer must be able to articulate what was observed so that a judge or jury will have a clear mental image of exactly what took place.

    Improving the ability to recognize and clearly describe observational evidence requires practice. It isn't practical to have impaired drivers actually drive through the classroom.
    The next best thing is to use video to portray typical DWI detection contacts.

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Procedures for Practicing Cue Recognition and Description

• View DWI violation videos • Take notes
• Testify

V Choose words carefully
V Provide as much detail as possible
V Construct accurate image of observations

• Critique testimony

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

5-19

Procedures for Practicing Cue Recognition and Description

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Leaving the Shopping Center

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-20

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

The Charcoal SUV

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-21

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Vehicle in Motion Stopping Sequence

What do you see? • Tries to flee?
• No response?
• Slow response? • Abrupt weave?

• Sudden stop?
• Strikes curb?
• New violations? • Anything else?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-22

E. Typical Reinforcing Cues of the Stopping Sequence

After the command to stop is given, the alcohol impaired driver may exhibit additional important evidence of DWI.

Some of these cues are exhibited because the stop command places additional demands on the driver's ability to divide attention.

The signal to stop creates a new situation to which the driver must devote some attention, i.e., emergency flashing lights, siren, etc., demand and divert the subject's attention.

Signal to stop requires the driver to turn the steering wheel, operate the brake pedal, activate the signal light, etc.

As soon as officer gives the stop command, the subject's driving task becomes more complex.

If subject is under the influence, the subject may not be able to handle this more complex driving very well.

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Phase One: Task Two Observation of the Stop

Requires the ability to:

• Recognize evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence

• Describe that evidence clearly and convincingly

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-23

Phase One: Task Two Observation of the Stop

It is the officer's responsibility to capture and convey the additional evidence of impairment that may be exhibited during the stopping sequence.

  • Requires ability to recognize evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence.

  • Requires ability to describe that evidence clearly and convincingly. F. Recognition and Description of Initial and Reinforcing Cues
    Procedures for practicing cue recognition and description.

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

The Sliding Sports Car

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-24

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

The Impatient Driver

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-25

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Half in the Bag

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-26

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Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-27

Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Test Your Knowledge

The Phase One tasks are ___________
Two common symptoms of impairment are:

A. _______________________________ B. _______________________________

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-28

Session 5 – Phase One: Vehicle in Motion

Test Your Knowledge

Alcohol impairs the ability to _____ among tasks
Three clues reinforcing the suspicion of DWI which may be observed during the stopping sequence are:

A. _____________________________ B. _____________________________ C. _____________________________

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 5-29

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following sentences. 1. The Phase One tasks are __________

2. Two common symptoms of impairment are:

3. Alcohol impairs the ability to __________ among tasks.

4. Three clues reinforcing the suspicion of DWI which may be observed during the stopping sequence are:

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Learning Objectives

• Identify typical clues of Detection Phase Two

• Describe observed clues clearly and convincingly

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-2

Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

  • Identify typical clues of Detection Phase Two.

  • Describe the observed clues clearly and convincingly.

    CONTENT SEGMENTS................................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. Overview: Tasks and Decision....................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations B. Typical Investigation Clues of the Driver Interview ..................................................... Video Presentation C. Recognition and Description of Investigation Clues ................................. Instructor-Led Demonstrations D. Interview/Questioning Techniques ................................................................... Participant Presentations E. Recognition and Description of Clues Associated with the Exit Sequence

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Phase Two: Personal Contact

Should Driver Exit?

Interview and Observation of the Driver

?

Observation of the Exit

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-3

A. Overview Tasks and Decisions

DWI Detection Phase Two: Personal Contact, like Phases One and Three, comprise two major evidence gathering tasks and one major decision. Your first task is to approach, observe, and interview the driver while they are still in the vehicle to Note any face to face evidence of impairment. During this face to face contact you may administer some simple pre-exit sobriety tests to gain additional information to evaluate whether or not the driver is impaired. After this evaluation, you must decide whether to request the driver to exit the vehicle for further field sobriety testing. In some jurisdictions, departmental policy may dictate that all drivers stopped on suspicion of DWI be instructed to exit. It is important to Note that by instructing the driver to exit the vehicle, you are not committed to an arrest; this is simply another step in the DWI detection process. Once you have requested the driver to exit the vehicle, your second task is to observe the manner in which the driver exits and to Note any additional evidence of impairment.

You may initiate Phase Two without Phase One. This may occur, for example, at a checkpoint, or when you have responded to the scene of a crash.

Task One

The first task of Phase Two, interview and observation of the driver, begins as soon as the driver vehicle and the patrol vehicle have come to complete stops. It continues through your approach to the driver vehicle and involves all conversation between you and the driver prior to the driver's exit from the vehicle.

You may have developed a strong suspicion that the driver is impaired prior to the face to face observation and interview. You may have developed this suspicion by observing something unusual while the vehicle was in motion, or during the stopping sequence. You may have developed no suspicion of DWI prior to the face to face contact. The vehicle operation and the stop may have been normal; you may have seen no actions suggesting DWI.

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For example, you may have stopped the vehicle for an equipment/registration violation, or where no unusual driving was evident. In some cases, Phase One will have been absent. For example, you may first encounter the driver and vehicle after a crash or when responding to a request for motorist assistance.

Regardless of the evidence that may have come to light during Detection Phase One, your initial face to face contact with the driver usually provides the first definite indications that the driver is impaired.

Decision

Based upon your face to face interview and observation of the driver, and upon your previous observations of the vehicle in motion and the stopping sequence, you must decide whether there is sufficient reason to instruct the driver to step from the vehicle.

For some law enforcement officers, this decision is automatic since their agency's policy dictates that the driver always be told to exit the vehicle, regardless of the cause for the stop. Other agencies; however, treat this as a discretionary decision to be based on what the officer sees, hears, and smells during observation and interview with the driver while the driver is seated in the vehicle.

If you decide to instruct the driver to exit, closely observe the driver's actions during the exit from the vehicle and Note any evidence of impairment.

B. Typical Investigation Clues of the Driver Interview

Face to face observation and interview of the driver allows you to use three senses to gather evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence:

  • The sense of sight

  • The sense of hearing

  • The sense of smell

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Personal Contact

What do you see?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-4

Sight

There are a number of things you might see during the interview that would be describable clues or evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence. Among them are:

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

What Do You See?

• Bloodshot eyes?
• Soiled clothing?
• Fumbling fingers?
• Alcohol containers?
• Drug and drug paraphernalia? • Bruises, bumps, scratches?
• Unusual actions?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-5

What do you see?

  • Bloodshot eyes?

  • Soiled clothing?

  • Fumbling fingers?

  • Alcohol containers?

  • Drugs or drug paraphernalia?

  • Bruises, bumps or scratches?

  • Unusual actions?

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Personal Contact

What do you hear?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-6

Hearing

Among the things you might hear during the interview that would be describable clues or evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence are these:

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

What Do You Hear?

  • Slurred speech?

  • Admission of drinking?

  • Inconsistent responses?

  • Unusual statements?

  • Abusive language?

  • Anything else?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-7

What do you hear?

  • Slurred speech?

  • Admission of drinking?

  • Inconsistent responses?

  • Unusual statements?

  • Abusive language?

  • Anything else?

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Personal Contact

What do you smell?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-8

Smell

There are things you might smell during the interview that would be describable clues or evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence. Typically these include:

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

What Do You Smell?

• Alcoholic beverage?
• Marijuana?
• “Cover-up” odors?
• Other unusual odors?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-9

What do you smell?

  • Alcoholic beverages?

  • Marijuana?

  • Cover up odors?

  • Other unusual odors?

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Phase Two: Task One Face to Face Observation and Interview of Suspect

Requires the ability to:

• Recognize the sensory evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence

• Describe that evidence clearly and convincingly

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-10

Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Procedures for Practicing Clue Recognition and Description

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-11

Proper face to face observation and interview of the driver demands two distinct but related abilities:

  • The ability to recognize the sensory evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence

  • The ability to describe that evidence clearly and convincingly

    Developing these abilities requires practice.

    C. Recognition and Description of Investigation Clues

    A basic purpose of the face to face observation and interview of the driver is to identify and gather evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence. This is the purpose of each task in each phase of DWI detection.

    During the face to face observation and interview stage, it is not necessary to gather sufficient evidence to arrest the driver immediately for DWI.

    Procedures for Practicing Clue Recognition and Description

    You will have to base your description of the driver's possible impairment strictly on what you see and hear during the face to face contact.

    Both senses provide some critically important evidence, not only in this video segment, but in all face to face contacts.

    Video Segment "The Busy Businessman"

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Testimony on

The Busy Businessman

What was seen? What was heard?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-12

Testimony on Video Segment “The Busy Businessman”

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Interview/Questioning Techniques

• Askingfortwothingssimultaneously • Asking interrupting or distracting

questions
• Asking unusual questions

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-13

D. Interview/Questioning Techniques

There are a number of techniques you can use to assess impairment while the driver is still behind the wheel. Most of these techniques apply the concept of divided attention. They require the driver to concentrate on two or more things at the same time. They include both questioning techniques and psychophysical (mind/body) tasks.

These techniques are not as reliable as the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests but they can still be useful for obtaining evidence of impairment. THESE TECHNIQUES DO NOT REPLACE THE SFSTs.

Questioning Techniques

The questions you ask and the way in which you ask them can constitute simple divided attention tasks. Three techniques are particularly pertinent:

  • Asking for two things simultaneously

  • Asking interrupting or distracting questions

  • Asking unusual questions.

    An example of the first technique, asking for two things simultaneously, is requesting the driver to produce both the driver's license and the vehicle registration. Possible evidence of impairment may be observed as the driver responds to this dual request. Be alert for the driver who:

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

License and Registration

  • Forgetstoproducebothdocuments

  • Produceswrongdocuments

  • Fails to see the license, registration or

    both while searching for them

  • Fumbles or drops wallet, purse, license

    or registration

  • Unabletoretrievedocumentsusing

    fingertips

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-14

Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Questions that Divide Attention

  • What day is it?

  • Where are you coming from?

  • Be alert for the driver who:

    • Ignores the question and concentrates only on the license or registration search

    • Forgets to resume the search after answering the question

    • Supplies a grossly incorrect answer to the question DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-15

  • Forgets to produce both documents

  • Produces documents other than the ones requested

  • Fails to see the license, registration or both while searching for them

  • Fumbles or drops wallet, purse, license or registration

  • Is unable to retrieve documents using fingertips

    The second technique would be to ask questions that require the driver to divide attention between searching for the license or registration and answering a new question. While the driver is responding to the request for license, registration or both, you ask unrelated questions; "What day is it?” or “Where are you coming from?”

    Possible evidence of impairment may be disclosed by the actions of the driver after this question has been posed. Be alert for the driver who:

  • Ignores the question and concentrates only on the license or registration search

  • Forgets to resume the search after answering the question

  • Supplies a grossly incorrect answer to the question

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Ask Unusual Questions

  • What is your middle name?

  • What are other unusual questions you can ask?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-16

The third technique, asking unusual questions, is employed after you have obtained the driver's license and registration. Using this technique, you seek verifying information through unusual questions. For example, while holding the driver's license, you might ask the driver, "What is your middle name?"

There are many such questions which the driver normally would be able to answer easily, but which might prove difficult if the driver is impaired, simply because they are unusual questions. Unusual questions require the driver to process information; this can be especially difficult when the driver does not expect to have to process information. For example, a driver may respond to the question about the middle name by giving a first name. In this case the driver ignored the unusual question and responded instead to a usual -- but unasked -- question.

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Additional Techniques

Count Down

68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-18

Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Additional Techniques

Alphabet

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-17

Additional Techniques

Alphabet

This technique requires the driver to recite a part of the alphabet. You instruct the driver to recite the alphabet beginning with a letter other than A and stopping at a letter other than Z. For example, you might say to a driver, "Recite the alphabet, beginning with the letter E as in Edward and stopping with the letter P as in Paul." This divides the driver's attention because the driver must concentrate to begin at an unusual starting point and recall where to stop.

Count Down

This technique requires the driver to count out loud 15 or more numbers in reverse sequence. For example, you might request a driver to, "Count out loud backwards, starting with the number 68 and ending with the number 53." This, too, divides attention because the driver must continuously concentrate to count backwards while trying to recall where to stop.

This technique should never be given using starting and stopping points that end in 0 or 5 because these numbers are too easy to recall. For example, do not request that the driver count backwards from 65 to 50. Instead, ask the driver to count backwards from 68 to 53.

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Finger Count

Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Additional Techniques

Finger Count

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-19

In this technique, the driver is asked to touch the tip of the thumb to the tip of each finger on the same hand while simultaneously counting up one, two, three, four; then to reverse direction on the fingers while simultaneously counting down four, three, two, one.

In each instance, Note whether and how well the driver is able to perform the divided attention task.

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

The Exit

What do you see?

  • Angry, unusual reaction?

  • Can't follow instructions?

  • Can't open door?

  • Leaves car in gear?

  • “Climbs” out of car?

  • Leans against car?

  • Keeps hand on car?

  • Anything else?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-20

E. Recognition and Description of Clues Associated With the Exit Sequence

Your decision to instruct the driver to step from the vehicle usually is made after you have developed a suspicion that the driver is impaired. Even if that suspicion may be very strong, the driver is usually not under arrest when you give the instruction.

How the driver steps and walks from the vehicle and actions or behavior during the exit sequence may provide important evidence of impairment. Be alert to the driver who:

Proper face to face observation and interview of a driver requires the ability to recognize the sensory evidence of alcohol and/or other drug influence and the ability to describe that evidence clearly and convincingly. Developing these abilities takes practice.

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

The Exit

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-21

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Test Your Knowledge

The two major evidence gathering tasks of Phase Two are _______________________

The major decision of Phase Two is______

Among the describable clues an officer might see during the Phase Two interview are: A.

B. C.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-22

Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Test Your Knowledge

Among the describable clues an officer might hear during the Phase Two interview are:

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-23

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following sentences.
1. The two major evidence gathering tasks of Phase Two are

2. The major decision of Phase Two is

3. Among the describable clues an officer might see during the Phase Two interview are:

4. Among the describable clues an officer might hear during the interview are:

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Session 6 Page 19 of 21

Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Test Your Knowledge

Among the describable clues an officer might smell during the Phase Two interview are:

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-24

Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Test Your Knowledge

Three techniques an officer might use in asking questions that constitute simple divided attention tasks.

The Countdown Technique requires the subject to:

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-25

Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

Test Your Knowledge

Leaning against the vehicle is a clue to DWI which may be observed during _____________

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-26

5. Among the describable clues an officer might smell during the interview are:

6. There are three techniques an officer might use in asking questions that constitute simple divided attention tasks. These techniques are:

7. The Count Down Technique requires the driver to __________.

8. Leaning against the vehicle is a clue to DWI which may be observed during the __________.

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Session 6-Phase Two: Personal Contact

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 6-27

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At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the role of psychophysical and preliminary breath tests;

  • Define and describe the concepts of divided attention and nystagmus;

  • Discuss the advantages and limitations of preliminary breath testing; and

  • Discuss the arrest decision process.

    CONTENT SEGMENTS................................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  1. Overview: Tasks and Decision ......................................................................Instructor-Led Presentation

  2. Gaze Nystagmus - Definition .................................................................. Instructor-Led Demonstrations

  3. Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus – Definition, Concepts, Demonstration ....................... Video Presentation

  4. Vertical Gaze Nystagmus – Definition, Concepts, Demonstration

  1. Divided Attention Tests: Concepts, Examples, Demonstration

  2. Advantages and Limitations of Preliminary Breath Testing

  3. The Arrest Decision

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Session 7 Page 1 of 25

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Should I Arrest?

Field Sobriety Testing

?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

7-3

A. Overview: Tasks and Decision

Like Phases One and Two, DWI Detection Phase Three, Pre-arrest Screening has two major evidence gathering tasks and one major decision.

Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Your first task in Phase Three is to administer three scientifically validated Standardized Field Sobriety Tests. If your agency uses preliminary breath tests (PBTs), your second task would be to administer (or arrange for) a PBT to confirm the chemical basis of the subject's impairment. Based on these tests and on all other evidence from Phase One and Two, you must decide whether there is sufficient probable cause to arrest the subject for DWI. The entire detection process culminates in the arrest/no arrest decision.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Psychophysical Tests

Methods of Assessing Subject's Mental and Physical Impairment

  • Focus on balance, coordination, information processing, etc.

  • Observed as soon as face to face contact and begin the interview

  • Additional indicators observed as the subject exits

  • SFST tests are most scientifically reliable DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-4

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

The Arrest Decision

  • DWI detection process concludes with the arrest decision

  • This decision is based on all evidence obtained during all three detection phases:

    • Observation of vehicle in motion and during the stopping sequence

    • Face to face observation of subject and subject's vehicle exit

    • Pre-arrest screening
      DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-5

Psychophysical tests are methods of assessing a subject's mental and physical impairment. These tests focus on the abilities needed for safe driving: balance, coordination, information processing and so on.

Indicators of psychophysical impairment may be observed as soon as you come into face to face contact with the subject and begin the interview. Additional indicators of impairment can be observed as the subject exits the vehicle to begin the field sobriety tests. The Standardized Field Sobriety Tests are the most scientifically reliable.

The Arrest Decision

The DWI detection process concludes with the arrest decision. This decision is based on all of the evidence you have obtained during all three detection phases: on observation of the vehicle in motion and during the stopping sequence; on face to face observation of the subject and the subject's exit from the vehicle; and, pre-arrest screening.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Nystagmus

Involuntary Jerking of the Eyes

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-6

B. Gaze Nystagmus – Definition

"Nystagmus" means an involuntary jerking of the eyes.
Alcohol and certain other drugs cause Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN)

  • Most reliable field sobriety test

  • Involuntary jerking occurring as eyes

    gaze toward the sides

  • Readily noticeable when a person is

    impaired

  • As BAC increases eyes begin to jerk

    sooner as they move to the side

  • CNS Depressants, Inhalants, and

    Dissociative Anesthetics also cause HGN

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-7

C. Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus – Definition, Concepts, Demonstration

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) is the most reliable field sobriety test. Especially when used in combination with the divided attention tests, it will help law enforcement officers correctly identify subjects who are impaired.

Involuntary jerking of the eyes becomes readily noticeable when a person is impaired. As a person's blood alcohol concentration increases, the eyes will begin to jerk sooner as they move to the side.

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus refers to an involuntary jerking occurring as the eyes gaze toward the side. In addition to being involuntary the person experiencing the nystagmus is usually unaware that the jerking is happening.

In administering the HGN test, the officer has the subject follow the motion of a small stimulus with the eyes only. The stimulus may be the tip of a pen or penlight, or an eraser on a pencil, whichever contrasts with the background.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Nystagmus Indications

  • Six maximum clues

  • Maximum three clues per eye

  • 77% accurate detecting subjects
    ≥ 0.10 BAC based on original research

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-8

  • When the HGN test is administered always begin with subject's left eye. Each eye is examined for three specific clues.

  • As the eye moves from side to side, does it move smoothly or does it jerk noticeably? (As people become impaired by alcohol, their eyes exhibit a lack of smooth pursuit as they move from side to side.)

  • When the eye moves as far to the side as possible and is kept at that position for four seconds, does it jerk distinctly? (Distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation is another clue of impairment.)

  • As the eye moves toward the side, does it start to jerk prior to a 45 degree angle? (Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees is another clue of impairment.)

  • As a person's blood alcohol concentration increases it is more likely these clues will appear.

  • The maximum total number of clues is six. The maximum number of clues that may appear in

    one eye is three.

  • The original research was conducted by the Southern California Research Institute (SCRI) and used to develop the initial curriculum showing this test was 77% accurate at detecting subjects at or above a 0.10 BAC.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

HGN Video

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-9

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

HGN Demonstration

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-10

To test for Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus, the subject is instructed to stand with feet together, hands at sides, hold the head still, and follow the motion of a stimulus with the eyes only.

The object may be the tip of a pen or penlight or the eraser on a pencil, which contrasts with the background.

Each eye is checked, beginning with the subject's left. A subjects' height might restrict ability to clearly see nystagmus. Subject may be placed in sitting position to accommodate a better view.

Two or more "passes" are made before each eye, to look for each of the clues of nystagmus. Subject height may restrict ability to see nystagumus in those cases, a sitting position may work.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Vertical Gaze Nystagmus Demonstration

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-11

D. Vertical Gaze Nystagmus – Definition, Concepts, Demonstration

Vertical Gaze Nystagmus (VGN) is an involuntary jerking of the eyes occurring as the eyes are held at maximum elevation.

For VGN to be recorded, it must be distinct and sustained for a minimum of four seconds at maximum elevation.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Divided Attention

Concentrating on more than one thing at a time (mental tasks and physical tasks)

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-12

E. Divided Attention Tests: Concepts, Examples, Demonstration

Many of the most reliable and useful psychophysical tests employ the concept of divided attention: they require the subject to concentrate on more than one thing at a time (mental tasks and physical tasks). Driving is a complex divided attention task. In order to operate a vehicle safely, subjects must simultaneously control steering, acceleration and braking; react appropriately to a constantly changing environment; and perform many other tasks.

Alcohol and many other drugs reduce a person's ability to divide attention. Impaired subjects often ignore the less critical tasks of driving in order to focus their impaired attention on the more critical tasks. For example, a subject may ignore a traffic signal and focus instead on speed control.

Even when impaired, many people can handle a single, focused attention task fairly well. For example, a subject may be able to keep the vehicle well within the proper traffic lane as long as the road remains fairly straight. However, most people, when impaired, cannot satisfactorily divide their attention to handle multiple tasks at the same time.

The concept of divided attention has been applied to psychophysical testing. Field sobriety tests that simulate the divided attention characteristics of driving have been developed and are being used by law enforcement agencies nationwide. The best of these tests exercise the same mental and physical capabilities that a person needs to drive safely.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Typical Simultaneous Capabilities Required for Driving

  • Information processing

  • Short term memory

  • Judgment/Decision making

  • Balance

  • Steady, sure reactions

  • Clear vision

  • Small muscle control

  • Coordination of limbs

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-13

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Simplicity

Field sobriety tests should be reasonably simple for the average person like you, the jurors, the judge and the suspect to complete as instructed when sober

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-14

Typical simultaneous capabilities required for driving:

  • Information processing

  • Short term memory

  • Judgment and decision making

  • Balance

  • Steady, sure reactions

  • Clear vision

  • Small muscle control

  • Coordination of limbs

    Any test that requires a person to demonstrate two or more of these capabilities simultaneously is potentially a good psychophysical test.

    Simplicity is the key to divided attention field sobriety testing. It is not enough to select a test that just divides the subject's attention. The test also must be one that is reasonably simple for the average person to complete as instructed when sober. Tests that are difficult for a sober subject to perform have little or no evidentiary value.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Two Divided Attention Field Sobriety Tests

Walk and Turn One Leg Stand

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-15

Two divided attention field sobriety tests that have proven accurate and effective in DWI detection are the Walk and Turn and the One Leg Stand.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Walk and Turn – Instructions Stage

• •

Divides subject's attention:  Balancing
 Information processing

Subject stands with feet in heel to toe position
Arms at side
Listen to instructions

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-17

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

• • • •

Walk and Turn

Validated by NHTSA
68% accurate detecting ≥ 0.10 BAC
Do NOT deviate from SFST instructions Two stages:

1. Instructions Stage 2. Walking Stage

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-16

Walk and Turn

Walk and Turn is a test that has been validated through extensive research sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

The original research was conducted by the SCRI and used to develop the initial curriculum showing this test was 68% accurate at detecting subjects at or above a 0.10 BAC.

Walk and Turn is a divided attention test consisting of two stages:

  • Instructions stage

  • Walking stage

    The Instructions Stage divides the subject's attention between a balancing task (standing while maintaining the heel to toe position) and an information processing task (listening to and remembering instructions).

    In the Instructions Stage, the subject must stand with their feet in a heel to toe position, keep their arms at their sides, and listen to the instructions.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Walk and Turn – Walking Stage

Divides subject's attention:

  • Balancing task

  • Small muscle control task

  • Short term memory task

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-18

In the Walking Stage the subject takes nine heel to toe steps, turns in a prescribed manner, takes nine heel to toe steps back, counts the steps out loud, and watches their feet. During the turn, the subject keeps their front foot on the line, turns in a prescribed manner, and uses the other foot to take several small steps to complete the turn. The Walking Stage divides the subject's attention among a balancing task (walking heel to toe and turning); a small muscle control task (counting out loud); and a short term memory task (recalling the number of steps and the turning instructions).

The walking stage divides the subject's attention between a task of listening, comprehending and carrying out the instruction.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Walk and Turn Test Clues

  1. Cannot keep balance while listening to the instructions

  2. Starts too soon

  3. Stops while walking

  4. Does not touch heel to toe

  5. Steps off the line

  6. Uses arms to balance

  7. Improper turn

  8. Incorrect number of steps

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-20

The Walk and Turn test is administered and interpreted in a standardized manner, i.e., the same way every time. Officers administering the Walk and Turn test observe the subject's performance for eight clues:

  1. Cannot keep balance while listening to the instructions

  2. Starts too soon

  3. Stops while walking

  4. Does not touch heel to toe

  5. Steps off the line

  6. Uses arms to balance

  7. Improper turn

  8. Incorrect number of steps

Inability to complete the Walk and Turn test may occur when the subject is in danger of falling or otherwise cannot complete the test.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

• •

One Leg Stand

Validated by NHTSA
65% accurate at detecting subjects ≥ 0.10 BAC

Two stages:
1. InstructionsStage
2. Balance and Counting

Stage

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-21

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

One Leg Stand – Instruction Stage

Divides subject's attention:

• Balancing task • Information processing

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-22

One Leg Stand

The One Leg Stand has also been validated through NHTSA sponsored research.

The original research was conducted by the SCRI and used to develop the initial curriculum showing this test was 65% accurate at detecting subjects at or above a 0.10 BAC.

It is a divided attention test consisting of two stages:

  • Instructions stage

  • Balance and counting stage

    In the Instruction Stage, the subject must stand with their feet together, keep their arms at their sides, and listen to instructions.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

One Leg Stand Demonstration

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-24

In the Balance and Counting Stage, the subject must raise one foot, either foot, with the raised foot approximately six inches off the ground, with both legs straight and the raised foot parallel to the ground. Have the subject, while looking at the elevated foot, count out loud in the following manner: "one thousand one", "one thousand two", “one thousand three” until told to stop. This divides the subject's attention between balancing (standing on one foot) and small muscle control (counting out loud).

The timing for a thirty second period by the officer is an important part of the One Leg Stand test. The original research conducted by SCRI in 1977 showed that many impaired subjects are able to stand on one leg for up to 25 seconds, but that few can do so for 30 seconds.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

One Leg Stand

Four clues:

1. Sways while balancing 2. Uses arms to balance 3. Hopping
4. Puts foot down

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-25

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

SFST Demo

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-26

One Leg Stand is also administered and interpreted in a standardized manner. Officers carefully observe the subject's performance and look for four specific clues:

  1. Sways while balancing

  2. Uses arms to balance

3. Hopping
4. Puts foot down

Inability to complete the One Leg Stand test occurs when the subject is in danger of falling or otherwise cannot complete the test.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Preliminary Breath Testing (PBT)

  • Is a stage in DWI subject pre-arrest screening

  • Purpose: Demonstrate association of alcohol with the observable evidence of the subject's impairment

  • Impairment established through sensory evidence: what officer sees, hears, smells

  • It does not indicate the level of subject impairment

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-27

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

PBT – Investigative Stage

  • PBT conducted at investigative stage

  • Accusatory stage has not yet begun

  • PBT is one of many factors to determine

    if subject should be arrested for DWI

  • Never the sole basis for a DWI arrest

  • PBT provides direct indication of alcohol

    impairment

  • Administer PBT after administering

    SFSTs

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-28

F. Advantages and Limitations of Preliminary Breath Testing

Preliminary breath testing, like psychophysical testing, is a stage in the pre-arrest screening of a DWI subject. Usually the subject is not yet under arrest when requested to submit to the preliminary breath test.

The basic purpose of preliminary breath testing (PBT) is to demonstrate the association of alcohol with the observable evidence of the subject's impairment. The subject's impairment is established through sensory evidence: what the officer sees, hears and smells.

The PBT provides the evidence that alcohol is the chemical basis of that impairment by yielding an on the spot indication of the subject's blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The PBT provides direct indication of the BAC level. It does not indicate the level of the subject's impairment. Impairment varies widely among individuals with the same BAC level.

The DWI incident remains at the investigative stage; the accusatory stage has not yet begun. The PBT result is only one of many factors the officer considers in determining whether the subject should be arrested for DWI. Whenever possible, it should never be the sole basis for a DWI arrest. The PBT result is an important factor because it provides direct indication of alcohol impairment. All other evidence, from initial observation of the vehicle in operation through psychophysical testing, indicates alcohol impairment.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

PBT Advantages

  • Corroborate other evidence

  • Confirm officer's judgment

  • Confirm alcohol as cause of impairment

  • Help establish probable cause for DWI arrest

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-29

PBT Advantages

A PBT offers several important advantages for DWI detection. It may:

  • Corroborate other evidence by demonstrating that the suspicion of alcohol impairment is consistent with the officer's observations of the subject's mental and physical impairment.

  • Confirm the officer's own judgment and help gain confidence in evaluating alcohol impairment accurately, based on observations and psychophysical tests. (Many officers experienced in DWI enforcement find that they rely less and less on the PBT as their confidence in their own powers of detection increases).

  • Disclose the possibility of medical complications or impairment due to drugs other than alcohol. (The PBT can confirm or deny that alcohol is the cause of the observed impairment. For example, observed psychophysical impairment coupled with a PBT result showing a very low BAC indicates an immediate need to investigate the possibility that the subject has ingested a drug other than alcohol or suffers from a medical problem).

  • Help to establish probable cause for a DWI arrest. (The role of the PBT in establishing probable cause may be affected by the evidentiary value of PBT results in your state. Consult your specific PBT law, your supervisor, or the local prosecutor for clarification, if necessary).

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

PBT Limitations

• Evidentiary • Accuracy

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-30

PBT Limitations

Preliminary breath testing may have both evidentiary limitations and accuracy limitations. Evidentiary limitations vary with specific laws. In some states PBT results are admissible as evidence; in other states they are not admissible. Where the results are admissible, there may be differences in the weight or value they are given. Consult your state PBT law, your supervisor or your local prosecutor, as necessary, for clarification.

Although all PBT instruments currently used by law enforcement are reasonably accurate, they are subject to the possibility of some error, especially if they are not used in the proper fashion.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Possible Factors Affecting Low PBT

• Breath sample cooling
• Breath sample composition

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-32

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Possible Factors Affecting High PBT

• Residual mouth alcohol • Breath contaminants

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-31

There are two common factors that tend to produce high results on a PBT.

Residual mouth alcohol. After a person takes a drink, some of the alcohol will remain in the mouth. If the person exhales soon after drinking, the breath sample will pick up some of this left over mouth alcohol. In this case, the breath sample will contain an additional amount of alcohol and the test result will be higher than the true BAC.

It takes approximately 15 minutes for the residual alcohol to be eliminated from the mouth.

The only sure way to eliminate this factor is to make sure the subject does not consume any alcohol for at least 15 to 20 minutes before conducting a breath test. Remember, too, most mouthwashes, breath sprays, cough syrups, etc., contain alcohol and may produce residual mouth alcohol. Therefore, do not permit the subject to put anything in their mouth for at least 15 to 20 minutes prior to testing.

Breath Contaminants. Some types of preliminary breath tests might react to certain substances other than alcohol. For example, substances such as ether, chloroform, acetone, acetaldehyde and cigarette smoke may produce a positive reaction on certain devices. If so, the test would be contaminated and its result would be higher than the true BAC. Normal characteristics of breath samples, such as halitosis (bad breath), food odors, etc., do not affect accuracy.

PBT instruments have accuracy limitations. Although all PBT instruments currently used by law enforcement are reasonably accurate, they are subject to the possibility of error, especially if they are not used properly. There are factors that can affect the accuracy of preliminary breath testing devices. Some of these factors tend to produce "high" test results; others tend to produce "low" results.

There are two common factors that tend to produce low PBT results.

Breath sample cooling. If the captured breath sample is allowed to cool before it is analyzed, some of the alcohol vapor in the breath may turn to liquid and precipitate out of the sample. If that happens, the subsequent analysis of the breath sample will produce a low BAC result.

Breath sample composition. Breath composition means the mixture of the tidal breath and alveolar breath. Tidal breath is breath from the upper part of the lungs and the mouth. Alveolar breath is deep lung breath. Breath testing should be conducted on a sample of alveolar breath, obtained by having the subject blow into the PBT instrument until all air is expelled from the lungs.

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Possible Factor Affecting Either High or Low PBT

• Radio frequency interference

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-33

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Possible Factors Affecting Preliminary Breath Tests

  • Breath sample cooling

  • Breath sample composition

  • Residual mouth alcohol

  • Breath contaminants

  • Radio frequency interference

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-34

Radio frequency interference (RFI) can produce either high or low test results, or can prevent a breath test device from producing any result. Care should be exercised when utilizing a PBT around radio equipment.

Radio frequency interference (RFI) can produce either high or low test results, or can prevent a breath test device from producing any result. Care should be exercised when utilizing a PBT around radio equipment.

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G. The Arrest Decision

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

The Arrest Decision is Based on All Evidence Accumulated During All Three Detection Phases

Initial Observation of Vehicle Operation

Face to Face Observation and Interview

Psychophysical Tests

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Observation of the Stop

Observation of the Exit

Your arrest/no arrest decision is the culmination of the DWI detection process. That decision is based on all of the evidence that has come to light since your attention was first drawn to the vehicle or individual.

PHASE ONE:

  • Initial observation of vehicle in motion

  • Observation of the stop.

    PHASE TWO:

    • Face to face observation and interview

    • Observation of the exit.

      PHASE THREE:

      • SFSTs

      • Preliminary breath tests.

        Your decision involves a careful review of each of the observations you have made. Conduct a "mental summary" of the evidence collected during vehicle in motion, personal contact and pre-arrest screening. If all of the evidence, taken together, establishes probable cause to believe that a DWI offense has been committed, you should arrest the subject.

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7-35

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Test Your Knowledge

  1. Thetwomajorevidencegatheringtasksof Phase Three are _________ and ________

  2. ThemajordecisioninPhaseThree is__________________________________

  3. TheentireDWIdetectionprocessculminates in ________________________

  4. Divided attention tests require the subject to_________________________________

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-36

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Test Your Knowledge

  1. Among the mental and physical capabilities a person needs to drive safely are these four:
    A.

    B. C. D.

  2. The two stages of the Walk and Turn are: A.

    B.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-37

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following sentences.

  1. The two major evidence gathering tasks of Phase Three are:

  2. The major decision in Phase Three is __________

  3. The entire DWI detection process culminates in ___________.

  4. Divided attention tests require the subject to __________.

  5. Among the mental and physical capabilities a person needs to drive safely are these four:

  6. The two stages of the Walk and Turn are:

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Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

Test Your Knowledge

10. Two factors that produce low results on a PBT are:

A. B.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-39

  1. The two stages of the One Leg Stand are:

  2. The purpose of PBT is

  3. Two factors that produce high results on a PBT are:

10. Two factors that produce low results on a PBT are:

Session 7 – Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 7-40

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the development and validity of the research and the standardized elements, clues and interpretation of the three Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

  • Discuss types of nystagmus and their effects on the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Learning Objectives

  • Proper administration of the three Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

  • Recognize clues of the three SFST Tests

  • Describe and record results of the three SFSTs on a standard note taking guide

    • Identify the limitations of the three SFSTs

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Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

  • Discuss the development and validity of the research and the standardized elements, clues and interpretation of the three Standardized Field Sobriety Tests.

  • Discuss the different types of nystagmus and their effects on the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test.

  • Discuss and properly administer the three Standardized Field Sobriety Tests.

  • Discuss and properly recognize the clues of the three Standardized Field Sobriety Tests.

  • Describe in a clear and convincing manner and properly record the results of the three Standardized Field Sobriety Tests on a standard note taking guide.

  • Identify the limitations of the three SFSTs.
    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. Overview: Development and Validation ...................................... Instructor-Led Demonstration B. SFST Field Validation Studies ..................................................... Participant Practice Session and C. Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus ................................................................................. Demonstration D. Vertical Gaze Nystagmus
    E. Walk and Turn
    F. One Leg Stand
    G. Taking Field Notes on the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Overview: Development and Validation

NHTSA research began in 1975 in California with three final reports being published:

• California: 1977 (lab study only)
• California: 1981 (lab/field study)
• Maryland, Washington, DC, Virginia, North

Carolina: 1983 (field study only)

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A. Overview: Development and Validation

For many years law enforcement officers have utilized field sobriety tests to determine a driver's impairment due to alcohol influence. The performance of the driver on those field sobriety tests was used by the officer to develop probable cause for arrest and as evidence in court. A wide variety of field sobriety tests existed and there was a need to develop a battery of standardized valid tests.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Original Research Objectives

  • Evaluate currently used physical coordination tests to determine their relationship to intoxication and driving impairment

  • Develop more sensitive tests that would provide more reliable evidence of impairment

  • Standardize the tests and observations

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The original research objectives were to:

  • Evaluate currently used physical coordination tests to determine their relationship to intoxication and driving impairment

  • Develop more sensitive tests that would provide more reliable evidence of impairment

  • Standardize the tests and observations.

    Beginning in late 1975, extensive scientific research studies were sponsored by NHTSA through a contract with the Southern California Research Institute (SCRI) to determine which roadside field sobriety tests were the most accurate. SCRI published the following three reports:

    • California: 1977 (Lab)

    • California: 1981 (Lab and Field)

    • Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, North Carolina: 1983 (Field)

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Volunteers Were Subjected to Six Tests

  • One Leg Stand

  • Finger to Nose

  • Finger Count

  • Walk and Turn

  • Tracing (a paper and pencil exercise)

  • Nystagmus (called alcohol gaze

    nystagmus in final report)

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SCRI traveled to law enforcement agencies throughout the United States to select the most commonly used field sobriety tests. Six tests were used in the initial stages of this study.

  1. One Leg Stand

  2. Finger to Nose

  3. Finger Count

  4. Walk and Turn

  5. Tracing (a paper and pencil exercise)

  6. Nystagmus (called alcohol gaze nystagmus in final report).

Laboratory research indicated that three of these tests, when administered in a standardized manner, were a highly accurate and reliable battery of tests for distinguishing BACs at or above 0.10; Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN), Walk and Turn (WAT), and One Leg Stand (OLS).

The research showed that these three tests were the most accurate and the remaining tests were merely reassessing the same skills.

While many field sobriety tests are valid tests, the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests have been validated through numerous research studies.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Original SCRI Test Data Results

• HGN by itself was 77% accurate
• Walk and Turn was 68% accurate • One Leg Stand was 65% accurate

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NHTSA analyzed the original SCRI research laboratory test data and found:

  • HGN, by itself, was 77% accurate

  • WAT, by itself, was 68% accurate

  • OLS, by itself, was 65% accurate

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Third Phase: Field Validation and Standardization Objectives

  • Develop standardized, practical and effective procedures for police officers to use in reaching arrest/no arrest decisions

  • Test the feasibility of the procedures in enforcement conditions

  • Determine if tests discriminate in the field, as well as in the laboratory

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B. SFST Field Validation Studies

The final phase of this study was conducted as a field validation.

  • Standardized, practical and effective procedures were developed

  • Determine the feasibility of the procedures for these tests in actual enforcement conditions

  • The tests were determined to discriminate in the field, as well as in the laboratory.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Standardized Elements

• Standardized Administrative Procedures • Standardized Clues
• Standardized Criteria

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The three standardized tests were found to be highly reliable in identifying subjects whose BACs were at or above 0.10. The results of the study unmistakably validated the SFSTs.

The “Standardized” elements included:

  • Standardized Administrative Procedures

  • Standardized Clues

  • Standardized Criteria

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Importance of Large Scale Field Validation Study

  • First significant assessment of the workability of the standardized tests under actual enforcement conditions

  • First time completely objective clues and scoring criteria had been defined for the tests

  • Results of the study validated the SFSTs

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

SFST
Field Validation Studies

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The large scale field validation study was the first significant assessment of the workability of the standardized tests under actual enforcement conditions. It was also the first time completely objective clues and scoring criteria had been defined for these tests. The results of this study validated the SFSTs.

Three SFST validation studies were undertaken between 1995 and 1998:

  • Colorado - 1995

  • Florida - 1997

  • San Diego - 1998

    In order to understand the results of the research studies discussed in this course, it is important to define what is meant by a correct arrest decision. A correct arrest decision is made when an officer, after completing the third phase of the detection process, decides to arrest a subject and that subject tested above the illegal per se limit for BAC or the officer decides to release a subject who is below the illegal per se limit for BAC.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Correct Decision

Arrested Subject

Did Not Arrest Subject

Above Illegal Per Se

Limit

I
Officer decided to arrest the

subject and their BAC was above the illegal per se limit

II
Officer decided not to arrest the

subject and their BAC was above the illegal per se limit

Below Illegal Per Se

Limit

III
Officer decided to arrest the

subject but their BAC was below the illegal per se limit

IV
Officer decided not to arrest the

subject and their BAC was below the illegal per se limit

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Figure 1: Matrix of possible arrest decisions illustrates the four different decisions which are present in all the validation studies. There are four quadrants, each representing a different decision. The quadrants (I and IV) represent a correct arrest decision.

The remaining subjects, incorrect arrest decisions, fall into two other categories. Members of the first group were not arrested, but tested above the illegal per se limit for BAC (quadrant II). The Colorado Study noted that a number (approximately 33%) of these individuals were considered alcohol tolerant and performed well on the SFSTs even though their BACs were above the illegal per se limit. Although these release decisions were recorded as errors based on the procedures outlined in the study, this non arrest decision ultimately benefited the driver.

The subjects in quadrant III were arrested, but their BAC was below the illegal per se limit. Many states stipulate in their statute that a driver is considered DWI if they are either above the illegal per se limit for BAC or have lost the normal use of their mental or physical faculties. Even though the arrests in quadrant III are legally justifiable according to an individual state's statute, these decisions are recorded as errors in the research based on the procedures outlined in the study.

Each of these studies have shown that the SFST three test battery is a scientifically validated and reliable method for distinguishing between impaired and unimpaired drivers.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Colorado Field Validation Study of SFST

  • FirstfullfieldvalidationstudyusingSFST experienced law enforcement personnel

  • 86% correct arrest/release decision based

    on three test battery (HGN, WAT, OLS)

  • 93% of those arrested had a BAC of 0.05

    or higher

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“A Colorado Validation Study of Standardized Field Sobriety Test Battery”

  • The Colorado SFST validation study was the first full field study that utilized law enforcement personnel experienced in the use of SFSTs.

  • The initial 1977 study utilized only a few experienced officers in DWI enforcement in both a laboratory setting and field setting. These officers received approximately four hours of training in field sobriety testing prior to the laboratory study.

  • In the Colorado study, correct arrest/release decisions at a 0.05 BAC were 86% accurate based on the three test battery (HGN, WAT, OLS). 93% of arrested drivers had a BAC of 0.05 or higher. These results, by officers who were trained in the Standardized Field Sobriety Testing curriculum, were substantially higher than the initial 1977 study results.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Florida Field Validation Study of SFST

• 95% correct arrest decision based on three test battery (HGN, WAT, OLS)

• Validated SFSTs at 0.08 BAC and above

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Florida Validation Study of the Standardized field Sobriety Test Battery”

  • The Florida SFST field validation study was undertaken in order to answer the question of whether SFSTs are valid and reliable indices of the presence of alcohol when used under present day traffic and law enforcement conditions.

  • Correct decisions to arrest were made 95% of the time based on the three test battery (HGN, WAT, OLS).

    This was the second SFST field validation study that was undertaken. This study was the first study conducted at the lower BAC limit of 0.08.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

San Diego Field Validation Study of SFST

  • 91% correct arrest decision for 0.08 BAC and above using three test battery (HGN, WAT, OLS)

  • HGN is still most reliable of three-test battery and supports arrest decisions at 0.08 BAC

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“Validation of the Standardized Field Sobriety Test Battery at BACs Below 0.10 %”

  • The San Diego SFST validation field study was undertaken because of the nationwide trend towards lowering the BAC limits to 0.08. The question to be answered was “Do SFSTs discriminate at BACs below 0.10%?”

  • The study examined the validity of SFST's for both .08% and .04%.

  • Correct arrest decisions were made 91% of the time based on the three-test battery

    (HGN, WAT, OLS) at the 0.08 level and above.
    This is the most current research used to describe the accuracy of the SFSTs.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

San Diego Field Validation Study of SFST

Based on this study:
• HGN was 88% accurate • WAT was 79% accurate • OLS was 83% accurate

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  • HGN was 88% accurate

  • WAT was 79% accurate

  • OLS was 83% accurate

    The results of this study provide clear evidence of the validity of the three test battery to support arrest decisions at above or below 0.08. It strongly suggests that the SFSTs also identify BACs at 0.04 and above.

Results: Three SFST 1990's Field Studies Study.............................................. % Correct
Colorado ........................................ 86% Arrest / Release Decisions Florida............................................ 95% Arrest Decisions
San Diego ....................................... 91% Arrest Decisions
It is necessary to emphasize this validation applies only when:

  • The tests are administered in the prescribed, standardized manner,

  • The standardization clues are used to assess the suspect's performance,

  • The standardization criteria are employed to interpret that performance.

    If any one of the SFST elements is changed, the validity may be compromised.

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Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Involuntary jerking of the eyes, occurring as the eyes gaze to the side

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C. Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Definition Review: Involuntary jerking of the eyes, occurring as the eyes gaze to the side. In addition to being involuntary:

  • Person is usually unaware that it is happening.

  • Person is powerless to stop it or control it.
    Key Summary Point: Alcohol and certain other drugs cause Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus.

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Categories of Nystagmus

• Vestibular
• Neural
• Pathological Disorders and Diseases

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Categories of Nystagmus

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus is not the only kind of nystagmus. There are other circumstances under which the eyes will jerk involuntarily.

It is important to know some of the other common types of nystagmus, to be aware of their potential impact on our field sobriety tests.

Nystagmus of several different origins may be seen. The three general categories of nystagmus are:

• Vestibular
• Neural
• Pathological Disorders and Diseases

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Vestibular Nystagmus

• Rotational
• Post Rotational • Caloric

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Vestibular Nystagmus is caused by movement or action to the vestibular system. Types of vestibular nystagmus:

  • Rotational Nystagmus occurs when the person is spun around or rotated rapidly, causing the fluid in the inner ear to be disturbed. If it were possible to observe the eyes of a rotating person, they would be seen to jerk noticeably.

  • Post Rotational Nystagmus is closely related to rotational nystagmus: when the person stops spinning, the fluid in the inner ear remains disturbed for a period of time, and the eyes continue to jerk.

    Neither Rotational nor Post Rotational Nystagmus will interfere with the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test because of the conditions under which they occur.

• Caloric Nystagmus occurs when fluid motion in the canals of the vestibular system is stimulated by temperature as by putting warm water in one ear and cold in the other.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Vestibular Nystagmus • Positional Alcohol Nystagmus

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Positional Alcohol Nystagmus (PAN) occurs when a foreign fluid, such as alcohol, that alters the specific gravity of the blood is in unequal concentrations in the blood and the vestibular system. This causes the vestibular system to respond to gravity in certain head positions, resulting in nystagmus.

In the original HGN study, research was not conducted for performing HGN on people lying down. Current research demonstrates that HGN can be performed on someone in this position.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Neural Nystagmus • Optokinetic

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Neural Nystagmus

• Physiological • Gaze

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Nystagmus can also result directly from neural activity:

Optokinetic Nystagmus occurs when the eyes fixate on an object that suddenly moves out of sight, or when the eyes watch sharply contrasting moving images.

Examples of optokinetic nystagmus include watching strobe lights, rotating lights, or rapidly moving traffic in close proximity. The Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test will not be influenced by optokinetic nystagmus when administered properly. During the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test, the suspect is required to fixate the eyes on a penlight, pencil or similar object that moves in accordance with the HGN testing procedures, thus optokinetic nystagmus will not occur. The movement of the stimulus and the fixation on the stimulus by the subject precludes this form of nystagmus from being observed by the officer.

Physiological Nystagmus is a natural nystagmus that keeps the sensory cells of the eye from tiring. It is the most common type of nystagmus. It happens to all of us, all the time. This type of nystagmus produces extremely minor tremors or jerks of the eyes. These tremors are usually too small to be seen with the naked eye. Physiological nystagmus will have no impact on our Standardized Field Sobriety Tests, because it's tremors are usually invisible.

Gaze Nystagmus is a form of nystagmus that occurs when the eyes attempt to maintain visual fixation on a stimulus.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Gaze Nystagmus

• Horizontal • Vertical
• Resting

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For our purposes, gaze nystagmus is separated into three types: • Horizontal

• Vertical • Resting

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Pathological Disorders and Diseases

Pathological Nystagmus - Caused by the presence of specific pathological disorder, which include brain tumors, other brain damage, or some diseases of the inner ear.

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Pathological Nystagmus. Caused by the presence of specific pathological disorder, which include brain tumors, other brain damage, or some diseases of the inner ear.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

  • Involuntary jerking of the eyes, occurring as the eyes gaze to the side

  • Observation of the eyes for Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus provides the first and most accurate test in the SFST Battery

  • It's presence may indicate use of certain other drugs

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Vertical Gaze Nystagmus

  • Involuntary jerking of the eyes (up and down)

  • Occurs when the eyes gaze upward at maximum elevation

  • Associated with high doses of alcohol and certain other drugs

  • Drugs that cause VGN may cause HGN

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Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus is an involuntary jerking of the eyes, occurring as the eyes gaze to the side. It is the observation of the eyes for Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus that provides the first and most accurate test in the Standardized Field Sobriety Test battery. Although this type of nystagmus is indicative of alcohol impairment, its presence may also indicate use of certain other drugs.

Examples of other drugs are: CNS Depressants, Inhalants, and Dissociative Anesthetics such as PCP and its analogs.

Vertical Gaze Nystagmus is an involuntary jerking of the eyes (up and down) which occurs when the eyes gaze upward at maximum elevation. The presence of this type of nystagmus is associated with high doses of alcohol for that individual and certain other drugs. The drugs that cause Vertical Gaze Nystagmus are the same ones that cause Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus.

There is no drug that will cause Vertical Gaze Nystagmus that may not cause Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus. If Vertical Gaze Nystagmus is present and Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus is not, it could be a medical condition.

For VGN to be recorded, it must be definite, distinct and sustained for a minimum of four seconds at maximum elevation.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Resting Nystagmus

  • Jerking of the eyes as they look straight ahead

  • Presence usually indicates a pathological disorder or high doses of a Dissociative Anesthetic drug such as PCP

  • If detected, take OFFICER SAFETY precautions

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Pathological Disorder Nystagmus

• Brain tumors and other brain damage • Some inner ear diseases
• Rare in the driving population

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Resting Nystagmus is referred to as a jerking of the eyes as they look straight ahead. Its presence usually indicates a pathological disorder or high doses of a Dissociative Anesthetic drug such as PCP. If detected, take precautions. (OFFICER SAFETY.)

Nystagmus may also be caused by certain pathological disorders. They include brain tumors and other brain damage or some diseases of the inner ear. These pathological disorders occur in very few people and in even fewer drivers.

Nystagmus may also be caused by certain pathological disorders. They include brain tumors and other brain damage or some diseases of the inner ear. These pathological disorders occur in very few people and in even fewer drivers.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Medical Impairment

  • Equal pupil size

  • Resting nystagmus

  • Equal tracking

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Medical Impairment

The examinations that you conduct to assess possible medical impairment include:

  • Equal pupil size

  • Resting nystagmus

  • Equal tracking

    Pupil size will be affected by some medical conditions or injuries. If the two pupils are distinctly different in size, it is possible that the subject:

    • Has a prosthetic eye

    • Is suffering from a head injury

    • Has a neurological disorder

      Resting nystagmus is referred to as jerking as the eyes look straight ahead. This condition is not frequently seen. Its presence usually indicates a pathology or high doses of a drug such as a Dissociative Anesthetic like PCP.

      Resting nystagmus may also be a medical problem.
      Tracking ability will be affected by certain medical conditions or injuries involving the brain.

      This observation is a medical assessment. If the two eyes do not track together, the possibility of a serious medical condition or injury is present.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Medical Impairment

Even though the possibility of alcohol and/or drug impairment exists, be aware of medical conditions having symptoms in common with alcohol influence.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

HGN Medical Impairment Assessment Procedures

  • Check eyes for:

  • Equal pupil size

  • Resting nystagmus

  • Equal tracking

    • If eyes do not track together, or pupils are noticeably unequal in size, medical disorders or injuries may be present

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By passing a stimulus across both eyes, you can check to see if both eyes are tracking equally. If they don't (i.e., if one eye tracks the stimulus, but the other fails to move, or lags behind the stimulus) there is the possibility of a neurological disorder.

If a person has sight in both eyes, but the eyes fail to track together, there is a possibility that the person is suffering from an injury or illness affecting the brain.

Procedures to Assess Possible Medical Impairment

Prior to administration of HGN, the eyes are checked for equal pupil size, resting nystagmus, and equal tracking (can they follow an object together). If the eyes do not track together, or if the pupils are noticeably unequal in size, the chance of medical disorders or injuries causing the nystagmus may be present. If the eyes track together, continue with the test and document the results.

Officers are reminded to ask questions about the subject's eye and general health conditions prior to administering the HGN test. If a subject responds or volunteers information that he or she is blind in one eye or has an artificial eye, the officer should make note of that and may proceed with the HGN test. If there are any abnormal findings on the pre-test checks, the officer may choose not to continue with the testing. If HGN testing is continued, officers are reminded that this does not follow the standardized protocol and should acknowledge such in any report.

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If HGN testing is conducted on a person with a blind eye, typical inconsistent findings could be related to the blind eye not being able to see or track the stimulus, or when the normal eye can no longer see the stimulus, e.g., when checking distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation on the blind eye side.

Source: “Eye Tests on a Suspect with a Blind Eye” Karl Citek, OD, PhD, FAAO, Pacific University College of Optometry, Sept. 2014.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

HGN Testing: Three Clues

• Lack of smooth pursuit
• Distinct and sustained Nystagmus at

maximum deviation
• Onset of Nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

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Procedures of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Testing: The Three Clues

The test you will use at roadside is "Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus" -- an involuntary jerking of the eyes occurring as the eyes gaze to the side. When a person is impaired by alcohol or certain drugs, some jerking will be seen if the eyes are moved far enough to the side.

  • The Lack of Smooth Pursuit (Clue Number One) - The eyes can be observed to jerk or "bounce" as they follow a smoothly moving stimulus, such as a pencil or penlight. The eyes of an impaired person will not follow smoothly, i.e., a marble rolling across sand paper, or windshield wipers moving across a dry windshield.

  • Distinct and Sustained Nystagmus At Maximum Deviation (Clue Number Two) - Distinct and sustained nystagmus is evident when the eye is held at maximum deviation for a minimum of four seconds and continues to jerk toward the side.

  • Onset of Nystagmus Prior To 45 Degrees (Clue Number Three) - The point at which the eye is first seen jerking. If the jerking begins prior to 45 degrees it is evident that the person has a BAC above 0.08, as shown by recent research.

    The higher the degree of impairment, the sooner the nystagmus will be observable.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Administrative Procedures

  • Check for eyeglasses

  • Verbalinstructions

  • Position stimulus (12-15 inches and slightly above

    eye level)

  • Check for equal pupil size and resting nystagmus

  • Check for equal tracking

  • Lack of smooth pursuit

  • Distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum

    deviation

  • Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

  • Total the clues

  • Check for vertical nystagmus

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Horizontal and Vertical Gaze Nystagmus can be observed directly and does not require special equipment. You will need a contrasting stimulus for the subject to follow with their eyes. This can be a penlight or pen. The stimulus used should be held slightly above eye level, so that the eyes are wide open when they look directly at it. It should be held approximately 12 - 15 inches in front of the nose. Remain aware of your position in relation to the subject at all times.

OFFICER SAFETY IS THE NUMBER ONE PRIORITY ON ANY TRAFFIC STOP. Administrative Procedures

  • Check for eyeglasses

  • Verbal instructions

  • Position stimulus (12-15 inches and slightly above eye level)

  • Check for equal pupil size and resting nystagmus

  • Check for equal tracking

  • Lack of smooth pursuit

  • Distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation

  • Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

  • Total the clues

  • Check for vertical nystagmus

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HGN Procedures

1. Check for eyeglasses 2. Verbal instructions
3. Position stimulus

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

HGN Procedures

4. Pupil size and resting nystagmus 5. Equal tracking

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Administrative Procedures for Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

It is important to administer the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test systematically using the following steps, to ensure that nothing is overlooked.

There are 10 steps in the systematic administration of the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test.

Step 1: Check for Eyeglasses. (Note if subject wears contacts, especially colored contacts because some colored contacts may affect the ability to compare pupil size)

Begin by instructing the subject to remove eyeglasses, if worn.

It does not matter whether the subject can see the stimulus with perfect clarity. The subject just needs to see it and be able to follow it.

Step 2: Verbal Instructions.
Give the subject the appropriate verbal instructions:

Point out that officers' should note whether subject sways, wobbles, etc. while trying to balance.

  • Put feet together, hands at the side

  • Keep head still

  • Look at the stimulus

  • Follow movement of the stimulus with the eyes only

  • Keep looking at the stimulus until told the test is over

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Step 3: Position the Stimulus.

Position the stimulus approximately 12 - 15 inches (30 - 38 cm) in front of subject's nose, and slightly above eye level to commence the test.

Resting Nystagmus may be observed at this time. Officers should note whether the subject displays Resting Nystagmus.

Step 4: Equal Pupil Size and Resting Nystagmus.

Check for equal pupil size and resting nystagmus.

Step 5: Equal Tracking.

Check for equal tracking. Move the stimulus rapidly from center to far right, to far left and back to center.

The speed of the stimulus should be approximately the same speed used as checking for the lack of smooth pursuit.

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HGN Procedures

  1. Check for lack of smooth pursuit

  2. Check for distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation

  3. Check for onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

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HGN Procedures

9. Total the clues
10. Check for Vertical Gaze Nystagmus

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Step 6: Lack of Smooth Pursuit. Check the left eye for lack of the "Smooth Pursuit" clue. If the eye is observed to jerk while moving, that is one clue.

Check the right eye for lack of the "Smooth Pursuit" clue and compare.

Step 7: Check the right and left eye for the "distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation" clue. If the jerkiness is distinct and sustained, that is one clue.

Step 8: Onset of Nystagmus Prior to 45 Degrees. Check the left eye for the "onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees" clue. If the jerking begins prior to 45 degrees, that is one clue.

Check the right eye for "onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees" clue, and compare.

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Step 9: Total the clues
Maximum number of clues possible for each eye: 3
Total maximum number of clues possible for both eyes: 6 Step 10: Check for Vertical Nystagmus

It is possible that all three clues definitely will be found in one eye, while only two (or sometimes only one) will show up in the other eye. It is always necessary to check both eyes, and to check them independently. Notwithstanding, it is unlikely that the eyes of someone under the influence of alcohol will behave totally different.

Thus, if one eye shows all three clues distinctly while the other eye gives no evidence of nystagmus, the person may be suffering from one of the pathological disorders covered previously.

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Test Interpretation

Look for three clues of nystagmus in each eye:

• Lack of smooth pursuit
• Distinct and sustained Nystagmus at

maximum deviation
• Onset of Nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

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Test Interpretation

You should look for three clues of nystagmus in each eye.
Lack of Smooth Pursuit (The eye cannot follow a moving object smoothly)

Distinct and Sustained Nystagmus at Maximum Deviation (Nystagmus is distinct and sustained when the eye is held at maximum deviation for a minimum of four seconds)

Onset of Nystagmus Prior to 45 Degrees.

Based on recent research, if you observe four or more clues it is likely that the subject's BAC is at or above 0.08. Using this criterion you will be able to classify about 88% of your subjects accurately. This was determined during laboratory and field testing and helps you weigh the various Standardized Field Sobriety Tests in this battery as you make your arrest decision.

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Three Clues of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

• Lack of smooth pursuit
• Distinct and sustained nystagmus at

maximum deviation
• Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

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Three Clues of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

When we administer the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test, we look for three specific clues as evidence of alcohol influence.

We check each eye independently for each clue.

For standardization, begin with the subject's left eye. Check for the first clue. Next, check right eye for same clue. Repeat this procedure for each clue starting with left eye, then right eye. Compare and document the results.

When we are checking an eye, it is good practice to administer the test by the numbers each time, to make sure that no step is overlooked.

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Clue Number 1

Lack of smooth pursuit

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Clue Number 1

Lack of smooth pursuit

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Clue No. 1: Lack of Smooth Pursuit

The first clue requires that the subject move the eye to follow the motion of a smoothly moving stimulus.

The stimulus may be the eraser on a pencil, the tip of a penlight, the tip of your finger, or any similar small object.

Begin by holding the stimulus vertically approximately 12 - 15 inches (30 - 38 cm) in front of the subject's nose, and slightly above eye level.

Move the stimulus smoothly all the way out to the right (checking subject's left eye first) then move the stimulus smoothly all the way across the subject's face to the left side (checking the subject's right eye), then back to center. Carefully watch the subject's left eye and determine if it is able to pursue smoothly.

Make at least two complete passes with the stimulus

If a person is not impaired by alcohol (or drugs that cause HGN), the eyes should move smoothly as the object is moved back and forth.

Analogy: movement of the eyes of a person not impaired by alcohol (or drugs that cause HGN) will be similar to the movement of windshield wipers across a wet windshield versus an impaired person and windshield wipers moving across a dry windshield.

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Mechanics of Clue Number 1

  • Move object steadily at a speed that takes approximately 2 seconds to bring the eye from center to side

  • Make at least two complete passes in front of the eyes

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The Mechanics of Clue Number 1

It is necessary to move the object smoothly in order to check the eye's ability to pursue smoothly.

The stimulus should be moved from center position, all the way out to the right side (checking subject's left eye) where the eye can go no further, and then all the way back across subject's face all the way out to the left side where the eye can go no further (checking subject's right eye) and then back to the center.

The object must be moved steadily, at a speed that takes approximately 2 seconds to bring the eye from center to side.

In checking for this clue, make at least two complete passes in front of the eyes.

If you are still not able to determine whether or not the eye is jerking as it moves, additional passes may be made in front of the eyes.

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Live Demonstration Clue Number 1

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Live Demonstration of the Mechanics of Clue No. 1

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Participant Practice Clue Number 1

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Participant Practice of the Mechanics of Clue No. 1

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Participant Led Demonstration Clue Number 1

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Participant Led Demonstration

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Clue Number 2

Distinct and Sustained Nystagmus at Maximum Deviation

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Clue No. 2: Distinct and Sustained Nystagmus at Maximum Deviation

Once you have completed the check for lack of smooth pursuit, you will check the eyes for distinct and sustained nystagmus when the eye is held at maximum deviation, beginning with the subject's left eye.

The Mechanics of Clue Number 2

Once again, position the stimulus approximately 12 - 15 inches (30 - 38 cm) in front of subject's nose and slightly above eye level.

Move the stimulus off to the right side (checking subject's left eye) until the eye has gone as far as possible.

Hold the stimulus steady at that position for a minimum of four (4) seconds, and carefully watch the eye.

Then, move the stimulus back across the subject's face all the way out to the left side (subject's right eye).

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Clue Number 2

Distinct and Sustained Nystagmus at Maximum Deviation

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Four seconds will not cause fatigue nystagmus. This type of nystagmus may begin if a subject's eye is held at maximum deviation for more than 30 seconds.

Hold the stimulus steady and carefully watch the eye.

If the person is impaired, the eye is likely to exhibit definite, distinct and sustained jerking when held at maximum deviation for a minimum of 4 seconds.

In order to "count" this clue as evidence of impairment, the nystagmus must be distinct and sustained for a minimum of 4 seconds.

If you think you see only slight nystagmus at this stage of the test, or if you have to convince yourself that nystagmus is present, then it isn't really there.

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Live Demonstration Clue Number 2

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Live Demonstration of the Mechanics of Clue No. 2

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Participant Led Demonstrations Clue Number 2

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Participant practice of the mechanics of Clue No. 2 Participant Led Demonstrations

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Clue Number 3

Onset of Nystagmus Prior to 45 Degrees

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Clue Number 3

Onset of Nystagmus Prior to 45 Degrees

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Clue No. 3: Onset of Nystagmus Prior to 45 Degrees

Once again, position the stimulus approximately 12 - 15 inches (30 - 38 cm) in front of subject's nose and slightly above eye level.

The angle of onset of nystagmus is simply the point at which the eye is first seen jerking.

Examples: With someone at a very high BAC (0.20+), the jerking might begin almost immediately after the eye starts to move toward the side. For someone at 0.08 BAC, the jerking might not start until the eye has moved nearly to the 45 degree angle.

Generally speaking, the higher the BAC, the sooner the jerking will start as the eye moves toward the side.

If the jerking begins prior to 45 degrees, that person's BAC could be 0.08 or above.

It is not difficult to determine when the eye has reached the 45 degree point, but it does require some practice.

If you start with the stimulus approximately 12 - 15 inches (30 - 38 cm) directly in front of the nose, you will reach 45 degrees when you have moved the stimulus an equal distance to the side. Two other important indicators can be used to determine if the eye is within 45 degrees.

At 45 degrees, some white usually will still be visible in the corner of the eye (for most people).

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Mechanics of Clue Number 3

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The Mechanics of Clue No. 3

The stimulus is positioned approximately 12 - 15 inches from (30 - 38 cm) subject's nose and slightly above eye level. It is necessary to move the stimulus slowly to identify the point at which the eye begins to jerk.

Start moving the stimulus towards the right side (left eye) at the speed that would take approximately 4 seconds for the stimulus to reach a 45 degree angle.

As you are slowly moving the stimulus, watch the eye carefully for any sign of jerking.

When you see the jerking begin, immediately stop moving the stimulus and hold it steady at that position.

With the stimulus held steady, look at the eye and verify that the jerking is continuing.

If the jerking is not evident with the stimulus held steady, you have not located the point of onset. Therefore, resume moving the stimulus slowly toward the side until you notice the jerking again.

When you locate the point of onset of nystagmus, you must determine whether it is prior to 45 degrees.

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Mechanics of Clue Number 3

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Verify that some white is still showing in the corner of the eye.
Examine the alignment between the stimulus and the edge of the subject's shoulder.

Start moving the stimulus towards the left side (right eye) at the speed that would take approximately 4 seconds for the stimulus to reach a 45 degree angle.

As you are slowly moving the stimulus, watch the eye carefully for any sign of jerking.

When you see the jerking begin, immediately stop moving the stimulus and hold it steady at that position.

With the stimulus held steady, look at the eye and verify that the jerking is continuing.

If the jerking is not evident with the stimulus held steady, you have not located the point of onset. Therefore, resume moving the stimulus slowly toward the side until you notice the jerking again.

When you locate the point of onset of nystagmus, you must determine whether it is prior to 45 degrees.

Verify that some white is still showing in the corner of the eye.

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Live Demonstration Clue Number 3

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Live Demonstration of the Mechanics of Clue No. 3

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Participant Practice Clue Number 3

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Participant practice of the mechanics of Clue No. 3

Participant led demonstration.

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45 Degree Template

45 o

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Training Aid: The 45 Degree Template

A training aid has been provided to help you practice estimating a 45 degree angle.

  • The outline of a square, with its diagonal line, gives us a 45 degree angle.

  • This outline, or template, is provided for practice only.

  • It is not to be used with actual DWI subjects.

    To use the template, have your training partner hold the corner of the square under the nose.

    When you line up your stimulus with the diagonal line, your partner will be looking along a 45 degree angle.

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Participant Practice

45 o

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Coaching and Critiquing Participants' Practice

Participant led Demonstration

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Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Test Criterion

4 or more clues indicates BAC above 0.08 (88% accurate)

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Test Interpretation

Based upon the original developmental research into Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus, the criterion for this test is 4.

If a person exhibits at least 4 out of the possible 6 clues, the implication is a BAC above 0.08. Using this criterion, the test is 88% accurate.

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Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Test Demonstration

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Administrative Procedures

  • Check for eyeglasses

  • Verbalinstructions

  • Position stimulus (12-15 inches and slightly above

    eye level)

  • Check for equal pupil size and resting nystagmus

  • Check for equal tracking

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Administrative Procedures

  • Lack of smooth pursuit

  • Distinct and sustained nystagmus as maximum

    deviation

  • Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

  • Total the clues

  • Check for vertical nystagmus

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Test Demonstration

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Vertical Gaze Nystagmus

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D. Vertical Gaze Nystagmus (VGN)

The Vertical Gaze Nystagmus test is simple to administer. During the Vertical Gaze Nystagmus test, look for jerking as the eyes move up and are held for a minimum of four seconds at maximum elevation.

  • Position the stimulus horizontally, about 12 - 15 inches in front of the subject's nose.

  • Instruct the subject to hold the head still, and follow the object with the eyes only.

  • Raise the object until the subject's eyes are elevated as far as possible.

  • Hold for a minimum of four seconds.

  • Watch closely for evidence of the eyes jerking upward.

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Participant led demonstration.

For VGN to be recorded, it must be distinct and sustained for a minimum of four seconds at maximum elevation.

VGN may be present in subjects under the influence of high doses of alcohol for that individual, and some other drugs.

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Walk and Turn

Divided Attention Test Mental Task and Physical Task

Instructions stage Walking stage

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E. Walk and Turn

Test Stages

Like all divided attention tests, Walk and Turn has two stages. They are:

  • instructions stage

  • walking stage
    Both stages are important, because they can affect the subject's overall performance on the

    test.

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Walk and Turn

Divided Attention Test Mental Task and Physical Task

Instructions stage Walking stage

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Safety Precautions

  • Keep subject to your left when starting demonstration

  • Be aware of surroundings

  • Officer should not turn his/her back to

    the subject for safety reasons

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Test Conditions

Whenever possible, the Walk and Turn test should be conducted on a reasonably dry, hard, level, non-slippery surface. There should be sufficient room for subjects to complete nine heel- to-toe steps. Recent field validation studies have indicated that varying environmental conditions have not affected a subject's ability to perform this test.

The original SCRI studies suggested that individuals over 65 years of age or people with back, leg or inner ear problems had difficulty performing this test. Less than 1.5% of the test subjects in the original studies were over 65 years of age. Also, the SCRI studies suggest that individuals wearing heels more than 2 inches high should be given the opportunity to remove their shoes. Officers should consider all factors when conducting SFSTs.

Procedures for Walk and Turn Testing

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Administrative Procedures Instructions Stage

•Verbal instructions:
• Assume heel-to-toe stance • Arms down at sides
• Don't start until told

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Instructions Stage: Initial Positioning and Verbal Instructions

For standardization in the performance of this test, have the subject assume the heel-to-toe stance by giving the following verbal instructions, accompanied by demonstrations:

Place your left foot on the line (real or imaginary).

Place your right foot on the line ahead of the left foot, with the heel of your right foot against the toe of the left foot.

Place your arms down at your sides.

Maintain this position until I have completed the instructions. Do not start to walk until told to do so.

Do you understand the instructions so far? (Make sure subject indicates understanding.)

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Administrative Procedures Walking Stage

• Nine heel-to-toe steps, turn, nine heel- to-toe steps

• Turn procedures: • Turn around on line
• Several small steps

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Demonstrations and Instructions for the Walking Stage

Explain the test requirements by giving instructions, accompanied by demonstrations:

When I tell you to start, take nine heel-to-toe steps on the line, turn, and take nine heel-to-toe steps down the line.

When you turn, keep the front (lead) foot on the line, and turn by taking a series of small steps with the other foot, like this.

While you are walking, keep your arms at your sides, watch your feet at all times, and count your steps out loud.

Once you start walking, don't stop until you have completed the test. Do you understand the instructions? (Make sure subject understands.) Instruct the person to begin the test.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Walk and Turn Test Clues

• Cannot keep balance while listening to instructions

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Test Interpretation

You may observe a number of different behaviors when a subject performs this test. Original research demonstrated that the behaviors listed below are likely to be observed in someone with a BAC at or above 0.08. Look for the following clues each time this test is given:

Cannot keep balance while listening to the instructions. Two tasks are required at the beginning of this test. The subject must balance heel-to-toe on the line, and at the same time, listen carefully to the instructions. Typically, the person who is impaired can do only one of these things. The subject may listen to the instructions, but not keep balance. Record this clue if the subject does not maintain the heel-to-toe position throughout the instructions. (Feet must actually break apart or step off the line.) Do not record this clue if the subject sways or uses the arms to balance but maintains the heel-to-toe position.

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Walk and Turn Test Clues

• Starts too soon
• Stops while walking
• Does not touch heel-to-toe

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Starts too soon. The impaired person may also keep balance, but not listen to the instructions. Since you specifically instructed the subject not to start walking "until I tell you to begin," record this clue if the subject does not wait.

Stops while walking. The subject stops while walking. Do not record this clue if the subject is merely walking slowly.

Does not touch heel-to-toe. The subject leaves a space of more than one half inch between the heel and toe on any step.

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Walk and Turn Test Clues

• Steps off line
• Uses arms to balance
• Improper turn
• Incorrect number of steps

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Steps off the line. The subject steps so that one foot is entirely off the line.

Uses arms to balance. The subject raises one or both arms more than 6 inches from the sides in order to maintain balance.

Improper turn. The subject removes the front foot from the line while turning. Also record this clue if the subject has not followed directions as instructed, i.e., spins or pivots around or loses balance while turning.

Incorrect number of steps. Record this clue if the subject takes more or fewer than nine steps in either direction.

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Walk and Turn Test Clues Summary

SFSTs are a tool to assist you in seeing visible signs of impairment and are not a pass/fail test

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If subject can't do the test, record observed clues and document the reason for not completing the test, e.g. subject's safety.

Remember that the SFSTs are a tool to assist you in seeing visible signs of impairment and are not a pass/fail test.

Subject gets into a "leg lock" position (legs crossed, unable to move.)

If the subject has difficulty with the test (for example, steps off the line), Continue from that point, not from the beginning. This test may lose its sensitivity if it is repeated several times.

Observe the subject from a safe distance and limit your movement which may distract the subject during the test. Always consider officer safety.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Walk and Turn Test Criterion

2 or more clues indicates BAC at or above 0.08 (79% accurate)

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-73

Based on recent research, if the subject exhibits two or more clues on this test or fails to complete it, classify the subject's BAC as at or above 0.08. Using this criterion, you will be able to accurately classify 79% of your subjects.

Review of Divided Attention Definition

Walk and Turn is a field sobriety test based on the important concept of divided attention. The test requires the subject to divide attention among mental tasks and physical tasks.

The mental tasks include comprehension of verbal instructions; processing of information; and, recall of memory.

The physical tasks include balance and coordination; the subject is required to maintain balance and coordination while standing still, walking, and turning.

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Instruction Stage

Test Demonstrations

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

One Leg Stand

Divided Attention Test Mental Task and Physical Task

• Instructions stage
• Balance and counting stage

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-74

F. One Leg Stand

Test Stages

Like all divided attention tests, One Leg Stand has two stages. They are:

  • Instructions stage

  • Balance and counting stage
    Both stages are important, because they can affect the subject's overall performance on the

    test.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

One Leg Stand

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

One Leg Stand

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-76

Test Conditions

One Leg Stand requires a reasonably dry, hard, level, and non slippery surface. Subject's safety should be considered at all times.

Standardizing this test for every type of road condition is unrealistic. The original research study recommended that this test be performed on a dry, hard, level, non slippery surface and relatively safe conditions. If not, the research recommends:

  1. 1)  subject be asked to perform the test elsewhere, or

  2. 2)  only HGN be administered

However, recent field validation studies have indicated that varying environmental conditions have not affected a subject's ability to perform this test.

The original SCRI studies suggested that individuals over 65 years of age; people with back, leg or inner ear problems; or people who are overweight by 50 or more pounds may have difficulty performing this test. Less than 1.5% of the test subjects in the original studies were over 65 years of age. There was no data containing the weight of the test subjects included in the final report. Also, the SCRI studies suggest that individuals wearing heels more than 2 inches high should be given the opportunity to remove their shoes.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Administrative Procedures

Instructions stage:
• Stand straight, feet together
• Keep arms at sides
• Maintain position until told otherwise

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-77

Instructions Stage: Initial Positioning and Verbal Instructions

Initiate the test by giving the following instructions, accompanied by demonstrations. Please stand with your feet together and your arms down at the sides, like this.
Do not start to perform the test until I tell you to do so.
Do you understand the instructions so far?

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Administrative Procedures

Balance and counting stage: • Raise either leg

  • Keep raised foot approximately six inches

    (15 cm) off ground, parallel to the ground

  • Keep both legs straight and arms at your

    side

  • Keep eyes on raised foot

  • Count out loud in the following manner:

    “one thousand one, one thousand two, one thousand three and so on”, until told to stop

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-78

Demonstrations and Instructions for the Balance and Counting Stage

Explain the test requirements, using the following verbal instructions, accompanied by demonstrations:

When I tell you to start, raise either leg with the foot approximately six inches off the ground, keeping your foot parallel to the ground.

Keep both legs straight and your arms at your side.

While holding that position, count out loud in the following manner: “one thousand one, one thousand two, one thousand three,” and so on until told to stop.

Keep your arms at your sides at all times and keep watching the raised foot. Do you understand?

Go ahead and perform the test. (Officer should always time the 30 seconds. Test should be discontinued after 30 seconds.)

Observe the subject from a safe distance.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

One Leg Stand Test Clues

• Sways while balancing • Uses arms to balance • Hopping
• Puts foot down

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-79

Test Interpretation

You may observe a number of different behaviors when a subject performs this test. The original research found the behaviors listed below are the most likely to be observed in someone with a BAC at or above 0.08. When administering the One Leg Stand test, we look for certain specific behaviors. Each behavior or action is considered one clue. There is a maximum number of 4 clues on this test. Look for the following clues each time the One Leg Stand test is administered.

The subject sways while balancing. This refers to side to side or back and forth motion while the subject maintains the One Leg Stand position.

Slight tremors of the foot or body should not be interpreted as swaying.

Uses arms to balance. Subject moves arms 6 or more inches from the side of the body in order to keep balance.

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Hopping. Subject is able to keep one foot off the ground, but resorts to hopping in order to maintain balance.

Puts foot down. The subject is not able to maintain the One Leg Stand position, putting the foot down one or more times during the 30 second count.

If the subject puts the foot down, give instructions to pick the foot up again and continue counting from the point at which the foot touched.

If subject can't do the test, record observed clues and document the reason for not completing the test, e.g. subject's safety.

Remember that time is critical in this test. The original SCRI research has shown a person with a BAC above 0.10 can maintain balance for up to 25 seconds, but seldom as long as 30.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

One Leg Stand Test Criterion

2 or more clues indicates BAC at or above 0.08 (83% accurate)

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-80

Based on recent research, if an individual shows two or more clues or fails to complete the One Leg Stand, there is a good chance the BAC is at or above 0.08. Using that criterion, you will accurately classify 83% of the people you test as to whether their BAC's are at or above 0.08.

Observe the subject from a safe distance and minimize movement during the test so as not to interfere. If the subject puts the foot down, give instructions to pick the foot up again and continue counting from the point at which the foot touched the ground. If the subject counts very slowly, terminate the test after 30 seconds.

Review of Divided Attention Definition

One Leg Stand is another field sobriety test that employs divided attention.

The subject's attention is divided among such simple tasks as balancing, listening, and counting out loud.

Although none of these is particularly difficult in itself, the combination can be very difficult for someone who is impaired.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

One Leg Stand Test Demonstration

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-81

Test Demonstrations

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Taking Field Notes on the SFSTs

IV Pre-Arrest Screening
• Equal Tracking Yes • Equal Pupils Yes • Resting Nyst. Yes

Walk and Turn

Instructions Stage

• Cannot keep balance • Starts too soon

Walking Stage

• Stops walking
• Misses heel-toe
• Steps off line
• Raises arms
• Actual steps taken

Improper Turn (Describe) Cannot do Test (Explain) Other:

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8-82

G. Taking Field Notes on the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Left Right

• Lack of smooth pursuit
No • Dist. and sust. nystagmus at maximum deviation
No • Nystagmus onset prior to 45 degrees
No • Vertical Gaze Nystagmus Y or N (circle one)

• Other _________________________________

First Nine Steps

Second Nine Steps

For purposes of the arrest report and courtroom testimony, it is not enough to report the number of clues on the three tests.

The numbers are important to the police officer in the field, because they help determine whether there is probable cause to arrest.

But to secure a conviction, more descriptive evidence is needed.

The officer must be able to describe how the subject performed on the tests, and what the subject did.

The standard note taking guide is designed to help develop a clear description of the subject's performance on the tests.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Medical Assessment

• Equal Tracking • Equal Pupils
• Resting Nyst.

Yes No Yes No Yes No

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-83

Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

• Lack of smooth pursuit
• Dist. & sust. nystagmus at maximum deviation • Nystagmus onset prior to 45 degrees
• Vertical Gaze Nystagmus(circle one)
Other _________________________________

Left Right

Y or N

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-84

Equal Pupils
Equal Tracking
Resting Nystagmus
Other ____________________________

Complete the entire procedure for both eyes, checking "yes" or "no" for each clue. Check boxif the clue is present.
For standardization, test the subject's left eye first.
Then, check for the same clue in the right eye.

If clue is not present, leave box blank.

After both eyes have been completely checked, total the number of HGN clues observed.

Complete the check for vertical gaze nystagmus

If present, circle Y. If not present, circle N.

In the section labeled "other", record any facts, circumstances, conditions or observations that may be relevant to this procedure.

Examples of additional evidence of impairment emerging while checking for nystagmus:

  • Subject unable to keep head still

  • Subject swaying noticeably

  • Subject utters incriminating statements

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□ Yes □ Yes □ Yes

□ No □ No □ No

Examples of conditions that may interfere with subject's performance while checking for nystagmus:

Wind, dust, etc. (irritating subject's eyes).

NOTE: Try to face subject away from flashing or strobe lights that could cause visual or other distractions that could impede the test.

Visual or other distractions impeding the test.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Walk and Turn

Instructions Stage

• Cannot keep balance • Starts too soon

Walking Stage

• Stops walking
• Misses heel-toe
• Steps off line
• Raises arms
• Actual steps taken

Improper Turn (Describe) Cannot do Test (Explain) Other:

First Nine Steps

Second Nine Steps

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

8-85

Walk and Turn

The section on the Walk and Turn test appears at the top of the guide's back side. First two clues are checked only during the instructions stage.

In the boxes provided check (√) the number of times the clue appears during the instructions stage.

Example: if subject loses balance twice during the instructions stage, Place two (√) check marks in the box.

Example: If the subject does not start too soon, write "0" in that box. Record the next four clues separately for each nine steps.

If subject stops walking, record it by drawing a vertical line from the toe at the step at which the stop occurred and place a letter “S” at bottom of vertical line to indicate “stops walking”. Do this for each of the nine steps.

How many times during first nine steps? How many times during second nine steps

If subject fails to touch heel-to-toe, record how many times this happens and place a letter “M” at bottom of vertical line to indicate missed heel-to-toe.

If subject steps off the line while walking, record it by drawing a line from the appropriate footprint at the angle in the direction in which the foot stepped. Do this for each nine steps.

If subject uses arms to balance, give some indication of how often or how long this happens. Example: subject raised arms from sides three times
Place three (√) check marks in the box.
Record the actual number of steps taken by subject, in each direction.

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For the next clue, “Improper Turn," record a description of the turn.

  • Example: turned incorrectly

  • Example: stumbled, to left

  • Example: wrong direction

  • Example: no small steps

  • If the turn is correct, note: N/A
    If the subject is unable to safely complete the test, you may stop the test early. Document the

    reasons the test was stopped.
    At end of the test, examine each factor and determine the total number of clues recorded.

    In the section labeled "other", record any facts, circumstances, conditions or observations that may be relevant to this test.

    Examples of additional evidence of impairment emerging during Walk and Turn test.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Considerations for the Walk and Turn Test

  • Straight line

  • Dry, hard, level, non-slippery

    surface

  • Room for nine heel-to-toe steps

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-86

Examples of conditions that may interfere with subject's performance of the Walk and Turn test:

  • Wind/Weather conditions

  • Subject's age

  • Subject's footwear

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Session 8 Page 77 of 82

Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

One Leg Stand Field Notes

One Leg Stand: RL

LR

L R Sways while balancing Uses arms to balance

Hopping

Puts foot down

Type of Footwear: ________________ Other: __________________________

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-87

Type of Footwear _________________

Record the subject's performance separately.

For each clue, record how often it appears with a (√) check mark.

If subject sways, indicate how often with a (√) check mark.

Indicate above the feet the number they were counting when they put their foot down.

Check marks should be made to indicate the number of times the subject swayed, used arms, hopped or put foot down.

Place (√) check marks in or near the small boxes to indicate how many times you observed each of the clues.

In addition, if the subject puts the foot down during the test, record when it happened. To do this, write the count number at which the foot came down.

For example, suppose that, when standing on the left leg, the subject lowered the right foot at a count of "one thousand thirteen," and again at "one thousand twenty.”

If subject uses arms to balance, indicate how often arms were raised.

If subject is hopping, indicate how many hops were taken.

If subject puts foot down, indicate how many times the foot came down.

If the subject is unable to safely complete the test, you may stop the test early. Document the reasons the test was stopped.

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At end of the test, examine each clue and determine how many clues have been recorded.

In the section labeled "other", record any facts, circumstances, conditions or observations that may be relevant to this test.

Examples of additional evidence of impairment emerging during One Leg Stand test:

Subject verbally miscounts 30 seconds

Subject utters incriminating statements.

At end of the test, examine each factor and determine how many clues have been recorded. Remember, each clue may appear several times, but still only constitutes one clue.

Officers who are video recording the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests may choose to document any observed clues by voicing them into the recording as the clues are observed.

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Test Your Knowledge

  1. Walk and Turn is an example of _____ field sobriety test.

  2. The Walk and Turn requires a real or imaginary line and ______________

  3. During the _____ stage of the Walk and Turn, the suspect is required to count out loud.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-88

Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Test Your Knowledge

  1. Based upon the San Diego study, the Walk and Turn test can determine whether a subject's BAC is above or below 0.08, _____ % of the time

  2. In the Walk and Turn test, a subject who steps off the line during the first 9 steps and once again during the second 9 steps and who raises arms for balance twice during the second 9 steps has produced _____ distinct clue(s).

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-89

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following sentences.

  1. Walk and Turn is an example of __________ field sobriety test.

  2. The Walk and Turn requires a real or imaginary line and __________

  3. During the __________ stage of the Walk and Turn, the subject is required to count out loud.

  4. Based upon the San Diego study, the Walk and Turn test can determine whether a subject's BAC is above or below 0.08, __________ % of the time.

  5. In the Walk and Turn test, a subject who steps off the line during the first 9 steps and once again during the second 9 steps and who raises arms for balance twice during the second nine steps has produced __________ distinct clue(s).

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Test Your Knowledge

  1. The Walk and Turn test has ____________ possible clues.

  2. During the _____ stage of the One Leg Stand test the subject must maintain balance while standing on one foot

  3. The One Leg Stand test requires that the subject keep the foot raised for _____ seconds.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-90

Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Test Your Knowledge

  1. Based upon the San Diego study, the One Leg Stand test can determine whether a subject's BAC is above or below 0.08, _____ % of the time

  2. In the One Leg Stand test, a subject who sways has produced _____ clue(s)

  3. In the One Leg Stand test, a subject who raises arms, is hopping, and puts foot down has produced _____ clue(s).

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-91

  1. The Walk and Turn test has __________ possible clues.

  2. During the __________ stage of the One Leg Stand test the subject must maintain balance for 30 seconds.

  3. The One Leg Stand requires that the subject keep the foot elevated for __________ seconds.

  4. Based upon the San Diego study, the One Leg Stand test can determine whether a subject's BAC is above or below 0.08, __________% of the time.

  5. In the One Leg Stand test, a subject who sways has produced __________ clue(s).

  6. In the One Leg Stand test, a subject who raises arms, is hopping, and puts foot down has produced __________ clue(s).

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Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

Test Your Knowledge

  1. The maximum number of clues for Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus that can appear in one eye is_____.

  2. Based upon the San Diego study, the HGN test can determine whether a subject's BAC is above 0.08, _____ % of the time.

  3. The third clue of HGN is an onset of nystagmus prior to _____ degrees.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-92

Session 8 - Concepts and Principles of the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST)

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 8-93

12. The maximum number of clues for Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus that can appear in one eye is __________.

13. Based upon the San Diego study, the Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus test can determine whether a subject's BAC is above 0.08, __________% of the time.

14. The third clue of HGN is an onset of nystagmus prior to __________ degrees.

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Session 9 – Test Battery Demonstrations

Learning Objective

• Demonstrate the appropriate administrative procedures for the Standardized Field Sobriety Testing Battery

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

9-2

Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

• Demonstrate the appropriate administrative procedures for the Standardized Field Sobriety Testing Battery.

CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. Live Classroom Demonstrations .....................................................Instructor-Led Presentation

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Session 9 – Test Battery Demonstrations

Instructor Led Demonstrations

Three tests:
• Horizontal and Vertical Gaze Nystagmus • WalkandTurn
• One Leg Stand

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

9-3

A. Live Classroom Demonstrations

Instructor-Led Demonstrations

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Session 9 – Test Battery Demonstrations

Participant Led Demonstration

Three tests:
• Horizontal and Vertical Gaze Nystagmus • WalkandTurn
• One Leg Stand

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9-4

Participant-Led Demonstration

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Session 9 – Test Battery Demonstrations

QUESTIONS?

9-1

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

9-5

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Session 10 – “Dry Run” Practice Session

Learning Objective

Demonstrate the appropriate administration of the three Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

10-2

Upon successfully completing this session the Participant will be able to:
• Demonstrate the proper administration of the three Standardized Field Sobriety Tests.

CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  1. Procedures and Group Assignments ..............................................Instructor-Led Presentation

  2. Live Administration of SFST Battery................................................ Participant Practice Session

  3. Hands on Practice ...........................................................................Instructor-Led Presentation

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Session 10 – “Dry Run” Practice Session

Procedures
and Group Assignments

Practice procedures
• Horizontal and Vertical Gaze Nystagmus

• Walk and Turn

• One Leg Stand

• Participants record each other's performance

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10-3

A. Procedures and Group Assignments

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Session 10 – “Dry Run” Practice Session

SFST Battery Live Administration

Participants observe technique and scoring only

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10-4

B. Live Administration of SFST Battery

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Session 10 – “Dry Run” Practice Session

Hands on Practice

“Dry run” practice procedures

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

10-5

C. Hands on Practice

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Session 10 – “Dry Run” Practice Session

QUESTIONS?

10-#

10-6

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

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PARTICIPANT PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION STANDARDIZED FIELD SOBRIETY TEST BATTERY

Name Date / / Agency
I. HORIZONTAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS

1. Have subject remove glasses if worn.
2. Stimulus held in proper position (approximately 12”-15” from nose, just slightly above eye

level.
3. Check for equal pupil size and resting nystagmus. 4. Check for equal tracking.

5. Smooth movement from center of nose to maximum deviation in approximately 2 seconds and then back across subject's face to maximum deviation in right eye, then back to center. Check left eye, then right eye.(Repeat)

6. Eye held at maximum deviation for a minimum of 4 seconds (no white showing). Checkleft eye, then right eye. (Repeat)

7. Eye moved slowly (approximately 4 seconds) from center to 45 angle. Check left eye, then right eye. (Repeat)

8. Check for Vertical Gaze Nystagmus. (Repeat) WALK AND TURN

1. Instructions given from a safe position.
2. Tells subject to place feet on a line in heel-to-toe manner (left foot behind right foot) with

arms at sides and gives demonstration.
3. Tells subject not to begin test until instructed to do so and asks if subjectunderstands. 4. Tells subject to take nine heel-to-toe steps on the line and demonstrates.
5. Explains and demonstrates turning procedure.
6. Tells subject to return on the line taking nine heel-to-toe steps.
7. Tells subject to count steps out loud.
8. Tells subject to look at feet while walking.
9. Tells subject not to raise arms from sides.

10. Tells subject not to stop once they begin.

II.

11.

Asks subject if all instructions are understood.

DWI Detection and SFST Participant Proficiency Examination

Revised: 10/2015

Page 1 of 2

III. ONE LEG STAND

1. Instructions given from a safe position.

2. Tells subject to stand straight, place feet together, and hold arms at sides.

3. Tells subject not to begin test until instructed to do so and asked if subject understands.

4. Tells subject to raise one leg, either leg, approximately 6” from the ground, keeping raised foot parallel to the ground, and givesdemonstration.

5. Tells subject to keep both legs straight and to look at elevated foot.
6. Tells subject to count out loud in the following manner: one thousand one, one thousand

two, one thousand three, and so on until told to stop, and gives demonstration. 7. Checks actual time subject holds leg up. (Time for 30seconds.)

Instructor:

Note: In order to pass the proficiency examination, the student must explain and proficiently complete each of the steps listed.

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

Learning Objectives

  • ProperlyadministertheSFSTs

  • Properlyobserveandrecordsubject's

    performance utilizing the standard note

    taking guide

  • Properly interpret the subject's

    performance

  • ProperuseandmaintenanceoftheSFST

    Field Arrest Log

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-2

Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

  • Properly administer the SFST's

  • Properly observe and record subject's performance utilizing the standard note taking guide

  • Properly interpret the subject's performance

  • Properly use and maintain the SFST Field Arrest Log
    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  1. Procedures .................................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations

  2. Hands on Practice ........................................................................... Participant Practice Session

  3. Use and Maintenance of SFST Field Arrest Log ..............................Instructor-Led Presentation

  4. Session Wrap Up .................................................................................Instructor-Led Discussion

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

Procedures

  • Same teams as dry run

  • Each team member administers one complete series of tests to at least one drinking volunteer

  • Prepare descriptive written test record on each volunteer tested

  • Other team members observe and record performance

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-3

A. Procedures

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

Procedures

  • Escort volunteer to the next scheduled team

  • When segment is complete, volunteers are escorted to breath testing station

  • BACs announced during “wrap-up”

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-4

B. Hands on Practice

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

SFST Field Arrest Log Components

  • The actual date the SFSTs were administered

  • Subject's full name
    • ResultsofeachSFSTtest

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-6

Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

SFST Field Arrest Log

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-5

SFST Field Arrest Log

Date

Name

HGN

WAT

OLS

BAC +/- .08

Arrest Not Arrest

Measured BAC

Remarks

                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

C. Use and Maintenance of SFST Field Arrest Log (IACP strongly recommends the use of this log)

The SFST Field Arrest Log is used to record the results of the SFSTs performed on suspected impaired subjects.

This log is important in documenting an officer's experience and proficiency in performing and interpreting SFSTs.

This log has the following components:

  • The actual date the SFSTs were administered

  • Subject's full name

  • Results of each SFST test

  • Classification of BAC as above or below 0.08 BAC

  • Arrest/Not Arrest

  • Subject's measured BAC (if available)

  • Remarks

    Utilization of Log

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

Team Reports

• Volunteerobservations • Recordresults
• Comments?
• Questions?

• Observations?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-7

D. Session Wrap Up

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-8

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Sample Dry Erase Board Array for Tabulating Results

“Designated Subjects”

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Walk and Turn

One Leg Stand

Arrest?

“A”

       

“B”

       

“C”

       

“D”

       

“E”

       

“F”

       

“G”

       

“H”

       

“I”

       

“J”

       

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SFST Field Arrest Log

Date

Name

HGN

WAT

OLS

BAC +/- .08

Arrest / Not Arrest

Measured BAC

Remarks

                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 

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10/2015 SFST Field Arrest Log Page 1 of 1

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

Learning Objectives

  • ProperlyadministertheSFSTs

  • Properlyobserveandrecordsubject's

    performance utilizing the standard note

    taking guide

  • Properly interpret the subject's

    performance

  • ProperuseandmaintenanceoftheSFST

    Field Arrest Log

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-A-2

Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

  • Properly administer the SFST's

  • Properly observe and record subject's performance utilizing the standard note taking guide

  • Properly interpret the subject's performance

  • Properly use and maintain the SFST Field Arrest Log
    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  1. Procedures .................................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations

  2. Hands on Practice ........................................................................... Participant Practice Session

  3. Use and Maintenance of SFST Field Arrest Log ..............................Instructor-Led Presentation

  4. Session Wrap Up .................................................................................Instructor-Led Discussion

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

Procedures

  • Same teams as dry run

  • Each subject will be viewed performing

    all three tasks

  • Only one opportunity to view each subject

  • Record the number of clues observed in the appropriate boxes on video score worksheet

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-A-3

A. Procedures

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

Procedures

  • Class will be divided into two groups

  • One half will watch video subjects

  • Other half will practice administration of SFSTs

  • At conclusion of video, participants will switch roles

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-A-4

B. Hands on Practice

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Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

Date

SFST Field Arrest Log

Name

SFST Field Arrest Log

HGN

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

WAT

OLS

BAC +/- .08

Arrest Not Arrest

Measured BAC

Remarks

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-A-5

Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

SFST Field Arrest Log Components

  • The actual date the SFSTs were administered

  • Subject's full name
    • ResultsofeachSFSTtest

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-A-6

C. Use and Maintenance of SFST Field Arrest Log (IACP strongly recommends the use of this log)

The SFST Field Arrest Log is used to record the results of the SFSTs performed on suspected impaired subjects.

This log is important in documenting an officer's experience and proficiency in performing and interpreting SFSTs.

This log has the following components:

  • The actual date the SFSTs were administered

  • Subject's full name

  • Results of each SFST test

  • Classification of BAC as above or below 0.08 BAC

  • Arrest/Not Arrest

  • Subject's measured BAC (if available)

  • Remarks

    Utilization of Log

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Session 11-A Page 4 of 5

Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

Team Reports

• Videosubjectobservations • Recordresults
• Comments?
• Questions?

• Observations?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-A-7

Session 11 - “Testing Subjects” Practice First Session

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 11-A-8

D. Session Wrap Up

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the importance of correct processing and report writing procedures in DWI arrests

  • Discuss the correct sequence of DWI processing procedures

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-2

  • Discuss the importance of correct processing and report writing procedures in DWI arrests

  • Discuss the correct sequence of DWI processing procedures
    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. The Processing Phase...................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations ............................................................................................................................ Video Presentation B. Narrative DWI Arrest Report
    C. Case Preparation and Pretrial Conference ................................................ Interactive Discussion ......................................................................................................... Instructor-Led Demonstrations D. Guidelines for Direct Testimony...........................................................Participant Presentations

    The foundation for preparation and successful testimony is the relationship between the law enforcement officer(s) involved with the arrest and the prosecuting attorney(s) associated with the case. Effective communication and a clear understanding of each group's objectives and expectations is essential for successful prosecution.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the essential elements of the DWI arrest report

  • Discuss the importance of pretrial Conferences and presentation of evidence in the DWI trial

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-3

  • Discuss the essential elements of the DWI arrest report

  • Discuss the importance of pretrial conferences and presentation of evidence in the DWI

    trial

    You, as the state's primary witness, play an important part in illustrating to the judge/jury the impairment of the defendant. In addition to verbal testimony, visual aids are often helpful in painting the picture of the entire DWI detection process. Visual aids engage the judge/jury and increase the retention of information. In addition, it is important that you do not use legal, law enforcement or medical terms unless absolutely necessary. The use of plain English assists the judge, jury and others involved in the case to understand the specifics of all the testimony.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Testimony

  • Be prepared to speak to the evidence

  • Take time

  • Listen

  • Organize your response before answering questions

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-5

Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Foundation for Successful Testimony

• Relationshipbetweenthelaw enforcement officer(s) involved with the arrest and the prosecuting attorney(s)

• Communication

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-4

A. The Processing Phase

The foundation for preparation and successful testimony is the relationship between the law enforcement officer(s) involved with the arrest and the prosecuting attorney(s) associated with the case. Effective communication and a clear understanding of each group's objectives and expectations is essential for successful prosecution.

You, as the state's primary witness, play an important part in illustrating to the judge/jury the impairment of the defendant. In addition to verbal testimony, visual aids are often helpful in painting the picture of the entire DWI detection process. Visual aids engage the judge/jury and increase the retention of information. In addition, it is important that you do not use legal, law enforcement or medical terms unless absolutely necessary. The use of plain English assists the judge, jury and others involved in the case to understand the specifics of all the testimony.

Since testimony constitutes the majority of time spent in trial, it is imperative that, in addition to effective communication techniques, the witness be well prepared to speak to the evidence related to the case. Direct examination is your opportunity to tell the story. It should be an exchange between the prosecutor and the law enforcement officer. Take the time to think and make sure that you completely understand the question and organize your response before you answer. NEVER answer a question that you do not fully understand. Cross examination is NOT the time to showboat. Always, listen carefully to the question and again make sure you completely understand the question before you answer. If you do not understand the question, ask for clarification. If you are not able to fully understand the question during direct or cross examination, it is acceptable to say “I do not know,” “I cannot answer that question” or “I cannot answer that question without further explanation.” Always make sure you listen closely to the question and don't answer a question you don't understand.

Remember: When it comes to successful testimony, there is NO substitution for preparation.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

• •

Successful Prosecution

Organize and present relevant evidence on each element of the DWI violation

All evidence must be compiled during the three phases of detection

― Vehicle in motion
― Personal contact
― Pre-arrest screening

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-6

The successful prosecution of a DWI case often depends upon the officer's ability to organize and present all relevant evidence of each element of the DWI violation. Keep in mind that virtually all of this evidence must be compiled during the three phases of detection – vehicle in motion, personal contact, and pre-arrest screening. The officer must be able to establish the level of impairment at the time that the violation occurred, therefore, observations are critical. Subsequent evidence of impairment, such as chemical test result(s) and/or the evidence gathered during a drug evaluation, will be admissible only when a proper arrest has been made. The efforts expended in detecting, apprehending, investigating and testing/evaluating the DWI offender will be of little value if there is not sufficient evidence to prove every element of the violation.

No matter how much evidence you collect, if it is not presented clearly, completely, and convincingly in court, the case may be lost. Therefore, it is essential that officers develop the ability to write a clear, complete, and concise report describing their observations and results. Additionally, the officer must be able to articulate that information to the judge/jury.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Types of Evidence

• Physical evidence
• Establishedfacts
• Illustrative evidence
• Demonstrative evidence • Writtendocumentation • Testimony

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-7

Evidence of a DWI violation may be of various types:

  • Physical (or real) evidence: something tangible, visible, audible (e.g. a blood sample or a partially empty can of beer).

  • Well established facts (e.g. judicial notice of accuracy of the breath test device when proper procedures are followed).

  • Illustrative evidence: visual aids (e.g., photo of the crash scene, defendant, or diagram of the roadway).

  • Demonstrative evidence: demonstrations performed in courtroom (e.g., SFSTs or other field sobriety tests).

  • Written documentation (e.g. the citation, the alcohol influence report, the drug evaluation report, evidential chemical test results, etc.).

  • Testimony (the officer's verbal description of what was seen, heard, smelled, etc.).

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

• •

Prosecutor

Must be able to establish and prove every element of the offense

Must establish proper procedures were

followed, including:

― Reasonable suspicion or another valid reason for stopping/contacting the driver

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-8

The prosecutor must be able to establish and prove every element of the offense. The prosecutor also must establish that the proper procedures were followed, including:

There was a reasonable suspicion or another valid reason for stopping/contacting the driver.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Proper Arrest Procedures Followed

  • Arrest procedures were followed

  • Regard was given to the defendant's

    Miranda rights

  • Subsequent observations/interview of the defendant provided additional evidence relevant to the offense

  • Request for a chemical test

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-9

The prosecutor's case will largely be based upon the thoroughness of the officer's investigation and the clarity of his/her testimony.

While it is true that many items which are critical to the prosecution are documented on special forms, the officer must keep in mind that the prosecutor may not have the time to search out relevant facts. The decision may be made to amend, reduce, or even dismiss the case on the basis of the arrest report alone.

It is essential that the report clearly, completely, and accurately describe the total sequence of events from the point the driver was first observed, through the arrest, the chemical test, and subsequent release or incarceration.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Guidelines for Note Taking

  • Recognitionandretentionoffactsthat establish reasonable suspicion to stop, investigate further, and have probable cause to arrest

  • Detection evidence must establish each element of the violation

  • Recognize and recall facts and circumstances

  • Relyonyourownfieldnotes

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-10

Guidelines for Note Taking

One of the critical tasks in the DWI enforcement process is the recognition and retention of facts that establish reasonable suspicion to stop the driver, investigate further, and the probable cause to arrest persons for DWI. The evidence gathered during the detection process must establish each element of the violation and must be documented to support successful prosecution of the defendant. This evidence is largely sensory (see, smell, hear) in nature and therefore is extremely short lived.

Law enforcement officers must be able to recognize and act on facts and circumstances with which they are confronted. But the officer must also be able to recall those observations, and describe them clearly and convincingly, to secure a conviction. The officer is inundated with evidence of DWI (sights, sounds, smells, etc.) recognizes it, and bases the decision to stop, investigate and arrest on their observations.

Since evidence of a DWI violation is short lived, police officers need a system and tools for recording field notes at scenes of DWI investigations. Technological advances have made it possible to use audio, video, and digital recorders in the field. They provide an excellent means of documenting this short lived evidence. However, the vast majority of officers must rely on their own field notes.

One way of improving the effectiveness of field notes is to use a structured note taking guide. This type of form makes it very easy to record brief notes on each step of the detection process and ensures that vital evidence is documented. Field notes provide the information necessary for completion of required DWI report forms and assist the officer in preparing a written narrative of the investigation. Since they can be used to refresh the officer's memory, field notes could be useful if the officer is required to provide oral testimony.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Processing Tasks

  • Transport the defendant to an appropriate facility

  • Arrange for video recording (if applicable)

  • Advise the defendant of rights and obligations under the implied consent law

  • Administer the evidentiary chemical test(s)

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-12

Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Processing Tasks

  • Inform the driver that they are under arrest

  • “Pat down” or frisk the defendant

  • Handcuff the defendant

  • Secure the defendant in the patrol

    vehicle

  • Secure the defendant's vehicle,

    passengers, property

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

12-11

The Processing Phase of a DWI Enforcement incident is the bridge between arrest and conviction of a DWI offender. Processing involves the proper assembly and organization of all of the evidence obtained during the detection phase. This ensures that the evidence will be available and admissible in court. Processing also involves obtaining additional evidence, such as a chemical test or tests of the subject's breath, blood, etc.

Typically, the processing phase may involve the following tasks:

  • Inform the driver that they are under arrest.

  • ”Pat down" or frisk the defendant.

  • Handcuff the defendant.

  • Secure the defendant in the patrol vehicle.

  • Secure the defendant's vehicle, passengers, property.

  • Transport the defendant to an appropriate facility.

  • Arrange for video recording (if applicable).

  • Advise the defendant of rights and obligations under the implied consent law.

  • Administer the evidentiary chemical test(s).

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Processing Tasks

  • AdvisethedefendantofConstitutional Rights (Miranda Admonition)

  • Interviewthedefendant

  • Incarcerateorreleasethedefendant

  • Completetherequiredreports

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-13

  • Advise the defendant of Constitutional Rights (Miranda Admonition).

  • Interview the defendant.

  • Incarcerate or release the defendant.

  • Complete the required reports.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Essential Ingredients of

Prosecution's Case

  • Clarity and completeness of officer's observations

  • Clear and concise report

  • Reasonable grounds for arrest

  • Proper arrest procedures

  • Rights of accused

  • Post-arrest evidence

  • Proper request for chemical test(s)

  • Chemical test result(s)

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-14

B. Narrative DWI Arrest Report

Report writing is an essential skill for a police officer. Good report writing becomes second nature with practice. While there is no one best way to write an arrest report, it is critical that the report be detailed regarding every phase of the detection and arrest process. It is helpful to follow a simple format. Departmental policies and/or special instructions or requirements of the prosecutor provide some guidance.

Point out that good report writing becomes second nature with practice.

It is important for officers to understand the essential ingredients of the prosecution's case. Clarity and completeness of an officer's observations and relaying this information in a clear and concise report is critical. Additionally, an officer must be able to establish that he/she had reasonable grounds for the arrest and followed proper arrest procedures. Proper arrest procedures include advising the defendant of their constitutional rights and gathering additional post arrest evidence. The admissibility of chemical test evidence requires a proper request in accordance with your state's guidelines.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Detection and Arrest

  • During the detection officer must mentally note relevant facts to support the decision to arrest

  • Facts are recorded in field notes

  • Field notes can be used to refresh

    officer's memory when the formal

    arrest/narrative report is prepared

  • Follow departmental policies

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-15

Detection and Arrest

During the detection phase of the DWI arrest process, the arresting officer must mentally note relevant facts to support the decision to arrest.

These facts are then recorded in the form of field notes and can be used to refresh officer's memory when the formal arrest/narrative report is prepared.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Writing the Report

  • Initial observation

  • Vehicle stop

  • Contact with driver

  • Driving or actual physical control

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-16

The following block outline format identifies some of the important components in a DWI arrest/narrative report:

Initial Observations - Describe your first observations of the driver's actions. What drew your attention to the vehicle/driver? Your first observations are important because they help establish your reasonable suspicion to stop. This should include details about the driving before you initiated the traffic stop. Be sure to record the time and location of the first event.

Vehicle Stop - Record any unusual actions taken by the driver. How did the driver react to the emergency light and/or siren? How far did the driver travel after emergency equipment was activated? How did the driver pull over? Was it a normal stop? Be detailed and specific.

Contact With Driver - Record your observations of the driver's personal appearance, condition of the eyes, speech, odors, inappropriate or inconsistent responses to questions, etc. Record the name and condition of passengers in the vehicle and where they were located. Describe any unusual actions taken by the driver or passengers.

Driving or Actual Physical Control - In some cases, you may not use the driving behavior as the basis for the contact. Your first contact could result from a crash investigation or a motorist assistance type of contact. Your observations and documentation must establish that the driver was operating or in actual physical control of the vehicle. You can use circumstantial evidence, such as seat belt marks, ownership of the vehicle, location of the keys, admissions, witness statements, etc. to establish this element.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Writing the Report

  • Exit the vehicle

  • SFSTs/Other field sobriety test

  • Arrest

  • Disposition of vehicle, people and property

  • Transport defendant

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-17

Exit From Vehicle - Record your observations of the driver's exit from the vehicle and include any unusual actions taken by the driver. Be specific about how the driver exits the vehicle. For example: climbs out of the vehicle, uses the vehicle for support, leans on the vehicle, walks slowly and/or deliberately, stumbles, etc.

Standardized Field Sobriety Tests - This should include specific details about the validated clues noted during the test. It should also include all other observations made during the SFSTs such as: did not follow directions, how quickly or slowly the driver performed the test, etc.

Field Sobriety Tests - Describe the driver's actions when you administered other field sobriety tests. Be specific.

Arrest - Document the arrest decision and ensure that all elements of the violation have been accurately described.

Disposition/Location of Vehicle and Keys - Indicate where the vehicle was secured or towed and the location of the keys. If the vehicle was released to another party or was driven by a backup officer, record that fact.

Disposition of Passenger and/or Property - Ensure that passengers and property are properly cared for.

Transport of Defendant - Describe where the defendant was transported for evidential testing. Document time of departure and arrival. (This information can be obtained from the radio log). Note any spontaneous or voluntary comments made by the defendant.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Writing the Report

  • Evidentiary test

  • Implied consent/Miranda warning

  • Witness' statements

  • Notifications

  • Citation/Complaint

  • Incarceration or release

  • Additional chemical test

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-18

Evidentiary Test - Document which test(s) were administered and by whom. Be sure to include the evidential test(s).

Implied Consent/Miranda Warning - Document that the admonishments were given at the appropriate point in the investigation.

Witness' Statements - List all witnesses (including other officers), contact information, and attach copies of their statements (if any). Additionally, make notes of any verbal statements made by witnesses.

Notification of Defendant's Attorney or Other Party - Document the time and result of defendant's telephone call to an attorney or other party.

Citation/Complaint - Document that the traffic citation/complaint was issued at the appropriate time, if applicable.

Incarceration or Release - Document the time and place of incarceration or the name and address of the responsible party to whom the defendant was released. Be sure to record the time.

Additional Chemical Test - If the defendant is authorized to request additional chemical tests and does so, record the type of test, time administered, location, and party administering the test.

The foregoing list is not intended to be all inclusive. In many cases, several points may not be applicable and additional information not listed may apply.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Writing the Report

  • Narrative does not have to be lengthy, but it must be detailed and accurate

  • Successful prosecution depends on your ability to describe the events you observed

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-19

The narrative does not necessarily have to be lengthy, but it must be detailed and accurate. Remember, successful prosecution depends on your ability to describe the events you observed. Often a trial can be avoided (i.e., a defendant may plead guilty) when you do a thorough job in preparing your arrest report.

A sample report providing an example of the block outline format is at the end of this session.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

DWI Incident Report

Defendant: Eryn Greenfield Age:31 Date of Arrest: 4-14-XX
Time of Arrest: 9:20 PM

Initial Observation:

 Defendant driving yellow Volkswagen  Driving without headlights
 Right tires over solid fog line
 Wide right turn

 Struck curb when stopping
 Four lane roadway, clear, breezy, traffic light

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-20

DWI Incident Report

Defendant: Eryn Greenfield, Age:31 Date of Arrest: 4-14-XX
Time of Arrest: 9:20 PM
Initial Observation:

  • Defendant driving yellow Volkswagen

  • Driving without headlights

  • Right tires over solid fog line

  • Wide right turn

  • Struck curb when stopping

  • Four lane roadway, clear, breezy, traffic light

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Session 12 Page 17 of 27

Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Contact with Driver

  • Driver was sole occupant

  • Passed over DL when looking

  • Forgot to produce registration/insurance

  • Odor of alcoholic beverage on breath,

    eyes red and watery

  • Admissions of drinking

  • Stumbled over curb

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-21

Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Field Sobriety Tests

  • HGN – Lack of smooth pursuit, distinct nystagmus at maximum deviation, angle of onset prior to 45 degrees in both eyes

  • Walk and Turn – Lost balance , raised arms for balance (2x), missed heel to toe, 10 steps, and improper turn

  • One Leg Stand – Raised left leg, put foot down on 1006 and 1009, skipped 1017, raised right arm for balance, reached 1019 in 30 seconds

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-22

Contact with Driver

  • Driver was sole occupant

  • Passed over DL when looking

  • Forgot to produce registration/insurance

  • Odor of alcoholic beverage on breath, eyes red and watery

  • Admissions of drinking

  • Stumbled over curb

    Field Sobriety Tests

  • HGN – Lack of smooth pursuit, distinct nystagmus at maximum deviation, angle of onset prior to 45 degrees in both eyes

  • Walk and Turn – Lost balance , raised arms for balance (2x), missed heel to toe, 10 steps, and improper turn

  • One Leg Stand – Raised left leg, put foot down on 1006 and 1009, skipped 1017, raised right arm for balance, reached 1019 in 30 seconds

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Field Sobriety Tests

Based on observations of the defendant's driving, physical appearance, and performance of standardized field sobriety tests, she was placed under arrest for DWI.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-23

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Case Preparation

  • Use field notes to document evidence

  • Accurately note statements and other

    observations

  • Review the case with other officers who

    witnessed the arrest

  • Collect and preserve all physical

    evidence

  • Prepare all required documents and a

o narrative report

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-24

C. Case Preparation and Pretrial Conference

As was discussed earlier in Session 4, case preparation begins with your first observation and contact with the driver. It is essential that all relevant facts and evidence are mentally noted and later documented in field notes, narrative report, or other official forms.

Guidelines for Case Preparation

  • Use field notes to document evidence.

  • Accurately note statements and other observations.

  • Review the case with other officers who witnessed the arrest or otherwise assisted you and write down relevant facts.

  • Collect and preserve all physical evidence.

  • Prepare all required documents and a narrative report.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Report Consistency

  • It is essential that all reports be consistent. Adequately explain differences

  • Uponreceiptofasubpoenaorother notification of a trial date, review all records and reports to refresh your memory

  • During discovery, list all evidence and properly document it

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-25

Remember, it is essential that all reports be consistent. If differences occur, be sure to adequately explain them. The defense will try to impeach your testimony by pointing out seemingly minor inconsistencies.

Preparation for Trial

Upon receipt of a subpoena or other notification of a trial date, review all records and reports to refresh your memory. If appropriate, revisit the scene of the arrest. Compare notes with assisting officers to ensure that all facts are clear.

During discovery, list all evidence and properly document it. Remember, evidence may be excluded if proper procedures are not followed.

Attention to detail is very important.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Pretrial Conference

  • Be prepared

  • Discuss all evidence/conclusions

  • Identify strengths and issues

  • Review potential questions

  • Identify defense challenges

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-26

Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Pretrial Conference

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-27

Successful prosecution is dependent upon the prosecutor's ability to present a clear and convincing case based on your testimony, physical evidence, and supporting evidence/testimony from other witnesses and/or experts.

If at all possible, arrange a pretrial conference with the prosecutor. In preparation for the pretrial conference, you should review the entire case file. During the conference, discuss with the prosecutor all evidence and all basis for your conclusions. If there are strengths or issues in your case, bring them to the prosecutor's attention. Ask the prosecutor to review the questions that will be asked on the witness stand. Point out when you do not know the answer to a question. Ask the prosecutor to review questions and challenges the defense attorney may use. Make sure your Curriculum Vitae is current. Review your credentials and qualifications with the prosecutor.

If you cannot have a pretrial conference, try to identify the main points and weaknesses about the case, and be sure to discuss these with the prosecutor during the few minutes you will have just before the trial.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

• • • •

Direct Testimony

Describe in detail:
 Case facts
 All observations
 SFSTs clues/observations

Be professional
Use plain language
Make eye contact with judge/jury Repeat important points

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-28

D. Guidelines for Direct Testimony

Your basic task is to establish the facts of the case:

That the subject was driving or in actual physical control of a vehicle on a highway or other specified location within the court's jurisdiction and was impaired by alcohol and/or other drugs.

In other words, to present evidence to establish reasonable suspicion for the stop, probable cause for the arrest, and conclusive evidence regarding every element of the offense.

Describe in a clear, detailed, and convincing manner all relevant observations during the three detection phases and those subsequent to the arrest. Describe clearly how the defendant performed (e.g., "stepped off the line twice on steps 2 and 4, raised the arms on steps 5 and 7 going out and step 3 coming back, etc."). By presenting your observations clearly and convincingly, you will allow the fact of the defendant's impairment to speak for itself. Direct testimony should include all relevant information about this incident.

Always keep in mind that juries typically focus on an officer's demeanor as much or more than on the content of the testimony. Strive to maintain your professionalism and impartiality. Be clear in your testimony; explain technical terms in layman's language; don't use jargon, abbreviations, acronyms, etc. Make eye contact with the judge/jury; they are the people you are trying to convince. Repeat important points and continued observations about the defendant.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Cross Examination

• Be polite
• Don'tbecomeagitated
• Ifyoudon'tknowtheanswer:

 Don't guess
 It is OK to say, “I don't know”

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-29

Cross Examination/Defense Challenges

In many cases, you will be the key witness for the prosecution. Therefore, the defense will try very hard to cast doubt on your testimony.

Be polite and courteous. Do not become agitated in response to questions by the defense. Above all, if you don't know the answer to a question, say so. Don't guess at answers, or compromise your honesty in any way. Be professional and present evidence in a fair and impartial manner.

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

Defense Challenges

  • Your observations/interpretations

  • Your credentials

  • Your credibility • SFSTs

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-30

The defense will ask questions to challenge your observations and interpretations. For example, you may be asked whether the signs, symptoms and behaviors you observed of the defendant could have been caused by an injury or illness, or by something other than the alcohol/drugs. You will be asked questions to create doubt about your observations. Answer these questions honestly, but carefully. If your observations are not consistent with an illness or injury, explain why not. Clearly testify that your opinion is based on everything that was observed during the DWI investigation.

The defense will attempt to challenge your credentials by asking questions to cast doubt on your formal training. They will ask questions to "trip you up" on technical or scientific issues. Answer all questions about your training and experience completely and accurately, but don't embellish. Answer scientific or technical questions only if you have been trained in that area.

The defense will ask questions to challenge your credibility. You may be asked several very similar questions in the hope that your answers will be inconsistent.

You may be asked questions designed to imply you had already formed your opinion before the defendant completed the field sobriety tests. Listen to the questions carefully and emphasize your arrest decision was made at the completion of your DWI investigation and based on ALL available evidence.

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You may be asked questions that suggest you deviated from your training. These questions may suggest you eliminated portions of the tests or gave incomplete or confusing instructions. One way you can refute these defense challenges is by administering the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests as you were trained. If deviations to the protocol occur, it is important to explain why. Standardization ensures both consistency and credibility.

You may be asked questions that suggest the Standardized Field Sobriety Tests are not relevant. These questions will suggest that SFSTs have no relationship to driving. For example, a defense attorney may suggest that standing on one leg does not correlate with the ability to drive safely. The divided attention tests assess the same mental and physical capabilities that a person needs to drive safely. These include:

  • Information processing

  • Short term memory

  • Judgment and decision making

  • Balance

  • Steady, sure reactions

  • Clear vision

  • Small muscle control

  • Coordination of limbs

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Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

The Courtroom Testimony

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 12-31

Session 12 – Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

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Courtroom Decorum

Trial Tips and Techniques

  1. TELL THE TRUTH. Honesty is the best policy. Telling the truth requires a witness testify accurately as to what he knows. If you tell the truth and are accurate, you have nothing to fear on cross examination.

  2. Provide your professional Curriculum Vitae to the prosecutor and, if requested, bring it to court with you.

  3. READ YOUR INCIDENT REPORT prior to arrival at court. Go over the details and refresh your memory of the events of the arrest. If you cannot locate a copy of your report, ask the prosecutor prior to the court date.

  4. Dress neatly and professionally; leave sunglasses, gloves, flashlight and other cumbersome equipment in your car before coming into the courtroom, unless needed for a demonstration.

  5. Do not guess the answer to any question asked. It is OKAY to say “I don't know” or “I can't remember” in response to questions. Do not give the impression that you are guessing the answer by prefacing your response with “I think” or “I believe.” If you do not know the answer, it is okay to look at your report and refresh your memory. Always give definitive, positive, sure answers.

  6. Listen carefully to the question asked. Do not begin your answer until the attorney has finished asking the question. Be sure you understand the question before you attempt to give an answer. It is appropriate if you don't understand the question to say “I don't understand your question.” If necessary, ask that the question be repeated or rephrased.

  7. Take your time. Do not feel pressured to give a quick answer. Take time after the question is asked to think before you answer. After a question is asked, there may be an objection. When you hear the word, “objection,” stop testifying.

  8. Answer the question that is asked, then stop. Do not volunteer information not asked. Explain an answer if you feel your answer appears ambiguous or incomplete. You are always permitted to explain your answer. Tell the prosecutor prior to your testimony if there is anything you feel they do not know about the case.

  9. Always be professional in the courthouse. Jurors could be anywhere at any time.

  10. Speak loud and clear so that you can be easily heard.

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  1. Look at the judge/jury when testifying. Always make eye contact with who you are trying to convince. During a bench trial, look at the judge. During a jury trial, look at the jury. This applies even when the attorney asking the question is not standing near the judge or jury box. Always talk to the judge or jury and maintain eye contact with them, even if it feels unnatural.

  2. Always be courteous, even when the defense attorney is not. Control your emotions, and never allow yourself to be drawn into an argument. Remember, the best way to make a good impression with the judge/jury is to be courteous and professional. You were just doing your job during the arrest, and presenting the facts in court as they occurred.

  3. Testify in plain language. Do not say, “The perpetrator exited the vehicle” when in reality “the defendant got out of his car.” The person on trial is never a “lady” or “gentlemen,” but is always “the defendant.” Do not use military times without clarifying the time in laymen's terms. Do not use call signals. It makes more sense to the jury when you speak the same language they do.

  4. It is the best practice to discuss the case with the prosecutor before trial. A defense attorney may ask if you've had a pretrial conference with the prosecutor. Tell the truth. Preparation for court is acceptable. Be straight forward in answering all questions.

  5. Always tell the truth. No case is worth sacrificing your credibility.

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Specific DWI Trial Recommendations

  1. Never give the numerical PBT reading of the defendant when asked by the prosecutor. However, if the defense attorney asks you for the NUMERICAL reading, give it to him/her. The prohibition of PBT results of a defendant do not apply to witnesses, such as passengers in the car.

  2. Discuss with the prosecutor, pre-trial, whether or not to demonstrate how you conducted field sobriety tests. Be certain that you can do in court all the tests you asked the defendant to perform at the time of the arrest. If you cannot do them, the jury will not expect that the defendant could have done them properly.

  3. Know the reasons for giving field sobriety tests:

    • They are divided attention tests, designed to detect when a person is impaired by alcohol and/or drugs.

    • They provide evidence of impairment in cases where the defendant refuses to take a chemical test under implied consent.

    • They prevent an arbitrary decision to arrest, and allow an officer to articulate the reasons for concluding that a driver was DWI.

  4. If you testify to the accuracy of the field sobriety tests, make sure you know the studies, percentages, and their significance. Considered independently, the Nystagmus test was 88% accurate, the Walk and Turn, 79% accurate, and the One Leg Stand, 83% accurate in identifying subjects whose BAC were .08 or more.

  5. Remember, you should not testify that the defendant passed or failed the SFSTs. The tests are not scored “pass” or “fail.” You should testify if the defendant completed the tests as instructed. These tests simply identify impairment.

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Sample DWI Incident Report

Defendant:
Age:
Date of Birth:
Date of Arrest:XX-XX-XX
Time of Arrest: 9:20 pm
CA - D.L. #: CA 1234567

First Observations:

On XX-XX-XX at approximately 9:00 p.m., I was patrolling westbound on Reed Avenue at the intersection with Interstate 80 (fully marked CHP patrol vehicle #904534). I was stopped at the intersection preparing to make a left turn onto eastbound I-80. I observed a yellow Volkswagon (S/V) traveling down the eastbound I 80 exit ramp approaching the intersection with Reed Avenue. I noticed the S/V traveling with no headlights. I also noticed that the front right parking light was not working correctly. Furthermore, I noticed the right tires of the S/V travel over the solid white fog line on the exit ramp by approximately 2 feet. The S/V made a brief stop at the intersection, then made a right turn onto eastbound Reed Avenue without using a turn signal. I made a U turn and followed the S/V. The S/V then made a wide right turn from Reed Avenue onto southbound Riverpoint Drive without using a turn signal. An enforcement stop was initiated at which point the S/V began to pull to the right. At the point the right front tire of the S/V rubbed up onto the raised concrete curb that paralleled the roadway.

Observations After The Stop:

I approached the S/V on the passenger side and made contact with the driver (convertible top down). I immediately noticed that the driver had red, bloodshot, watery eyes. I advised her of the reason for the stop and asked if her vehicle had any mechanical problems. She stated, “no.” I requested her driver's license, registration, and insurance. The driver removed a stack of cards from her wallet, which was located in her purse on right front passenger seat. She began sifting through the stack of cards. I observed her clearly pass by her license and continue searching through the cards. Unable to locate her license on the first attempt, she started over at the top and located the license on the second attempt. She was identified as Eryn Greenfield by California driver's license (#CA1234567). After handing me the license, she did not make an attempt to retrieve the other documents I had requested. I asked her again for the registration and insurance cards. She then retrieved them out of the glove compartment. I asked her how much alcohol she had consumed and she stated “a couple of beers about an hour ago.” I asked her what size and type of beer and she replied with 12oz. bottles of Heineken. I asked her if she felt the effects of the drinks and she stated, “No, I feel fine.” As she spoke, I noticed that her speech was slurred. I asked her to exit the vehicle and step to the sidewalk so I could administer

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10/2015 Sample DWI Incident Report Page 1 of 3

Eryn Greenfield 31
10/03/XX

several field sobriety tests to her (see field sobriety test section). As she exited the vehicle, she stepped around the front as instructed, then stumbled on the raised curb. I asked her several pre-field sobriety test questions of which she answered accordingly (see page 2 of face page). As I communicated with her, I smelled an odor of alcoholic beverage emitting from her breath.

Field Sobriety Tests:

This evaluation was performed on Riverpoint Drive, just south of Reed Avenue. The evaluation surface was smooth concrete. Lighting conditions consisted of patrol vehicle headlights, spotlights, overhead lights, streetlight, and my flashlight. No surface defects were noted or claimed. It was noticeably windy.

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (explained):

I observed lack of smooth pursuit, distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation, and an onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees in both of Greenfield's eyes. Greenfield was swaying forward and backward significantly during the test. At least 3 inches in both directions.

Walk and Turn (explained and demonstrated):

Instruction Stage: Lost balance (feet broke apart) Walking Stage (1st Nine): Walked 10 steps (counted 10).

Raised left arm over 6 inches away from body to assist with balance on one occasion (at steps 4 - 5).

Walking Stage (2nd Nine): Walked 10 steps (counted 9).

Raised left arm over 6 inches away from body to assist with balance on tow occasions (at steps 6 - 7).

Turn: Lost balance during turn and did not turn as instructed. Greenfield only took one step during the turn instead of several small steps as instructed.

One Leg Stand (explained and demonstrated):

While explaining the test, Greenfield started before being told to begin. Greenfield raised her left leg and began counting. She put her foot down on counts 1006 and 1009. As she was counting, she skipped 1017 (counting from 1016 to 1018). Used right arm for balance (6+ inches from body) and was swaying while balancing. She counted to 1019 after 30 seconds.

Arrest:

Based on the following information, I formed the opinion that Greenfield was driving under the influence:

• Driving at night with no headlights.

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  • Driving to the right of the solid white fog line on exit ramp.

  • Making wide right turn from eastbound Reed Avenue to southbound Riverpoint Drive

    without using a turn signal.

  • Right tire rubbing against raised concrete curb after stop was initiated.

  • I observed divided attention problems while retrieving her license/registration and insurance.

  • Her red, bloodshot, watery eyes and slurred speech.

  • Her admissions to consuming alcoholic beverages.

  • Stumbling over curb after exiting the vehicle.

  • Odor of alcoholic beverage emitting from her breath.

  • I observed signs of impairment as she performed the standardized field sobriety tests.

    I arrested Greenfield for driving under the influence of an alcoholic beverage at 9:20 p.m. Greenfield was given the proper chemical testing advisement. She chose a breath test and was transported to the breath testing facility. She provided two breath samples of 0.08 and 0.08 at 9:50 p.m. and 9:52 p.m. She was then booked along with her property.

    Recommendations:

    I recommend a copy of this report be forwarded to the district attorney's office for review and prosecution of Greenfield for driving under the influence and driving with a blood alcohol concentration at or above the legal state limit.

    Vehicle Disposition:

    Greenfield's vehicle was stored by Reliable Towing.

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Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the required information on a narrative arrest report

  • Successfully complete a narrative arrest report

  • Discuss the need for competent courtroom testimony

  • Demonstrate the proper techniques of courtroom testimony

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-2

At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to:

  • Discuss the required information on a narrative arrest report

  • Successfully complete a narrative arrest report

  • Discuss the need for competent courtroom testimony

  • Demonstrate the proper techniques of courtroom testimony

    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  1. Procedures .................................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations

  2. Report Writing Exercise ............................................................................... Video Presentation

  3. Moot Court Exercise ................................................................................ Writing Skills Exercise

.................................................................................... Participant's Courtroom Testimony Exercise ...................................................................................................................Instructor-Led Discussion

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Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Report Writing Exercise

• Report Writing

  • Video simulation of DWI incident

  • 10 Minutes to make notes

  • Complete narrative arrest report

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-3

A. Procedures

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Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Arrest Report

• Use to record all evidence depicted in the video

• End narrative report at the completion of the driver's exit

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-6

Distribution of Standardized Note Taking Guide/Narrative Arrest Report Forms

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Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Report Writing

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-7

B. Report Writing Exercise “Report Writing” video.

Show the “Report Writing” video. While this video is being shown participants may fill out note taking guides.

Reference back to Sessions 5 and 6 for appropriate clues.

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Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Arrest Report Format

  • Initial observation

  • Stopping sequence

  • Contact with driver

  • SFSTs

  • PBTs

  • Arrest

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-8

Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Complete Arrest Report

• 10 minutes
• End report with arrest of subject • Break
• Be prepared to take the stand

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-9

The arrest report should contain the following elements:

  • Initial observations of vehicle in operation

  • Observations of the stop

  • Observation and interview of driver

  • Observations of the driver's exit

  • SFSTs

  • Arrest

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Session 13 Page 5 of 9

Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Moot Court Exercise

• Twoarrestingofficers
• Judge presides over the case • Jury

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-10

C. Moot Court Exercise

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Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Moot Court Exercise

  • Officers testify

  • Refer to written reports if necessary

  • Closing statements

  • Jury renders verdict

  • Discussion

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-11

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Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Moot Court Exercise

• Take the stand • Testify

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-4

Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

Moot Court Exercise

• Video replayed
• Comments
• Instructor Critique

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-5

The Moot Court Exercise

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Session 13 – Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 13-12

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Session 14 – “Testing Subjects” Practice: Second Session

Learning Objectives

  • ProperlyadministertheSFSTs

  • Properlyobserveandrecordsubject's performance utilizing the standard note taking guide

  • Properly interpret the subject's performance

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-2

At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to:

  • Properly administer the SFSTs

  • Properly observe and record subject's performance utilizing the standard note taking guide

  • Properly interpret the subject's performance
    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. Procedures ...................................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations B. Hands on Practice ............................................................................. Participant Practice Session C. Session Wrap Up ..................................................................................Instructor-Led Discussion

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Session 14 – “Testing Subjects” Practice: Second Session

Administer SFSTs

  • Volunteers who have consumed alcohol

  • Each team member will administer one complete series of tests to at least one drinking volunteer

  • Each team prepares a descriptive, written test record on each volunteer tested

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-3

A. Procedures

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Session 14 – “Testing Subjects” Practice: Second Session

Hands On Practice

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-4

B. Hands on Practice

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Session 14 – “Testing Subjects” Practice: Second Session

Session Wrap Up

  • SFST results on each volunteer

  • Observations concerning the relationship between volunteers' BACs and their performances on the tests

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-5

Session 14 – “Testing Subjects” Practice: Second Session

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-6

C. Session Wrap Up

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Session 14 – “Testing Subjects” Practice: Second Session

“Designated Subjects”

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Walk and Turn

One Leg Stand

Arrest ?

“A”

       

“B”

       

“C”

       

“D”

       

“E”

       

“F”

       

“G”

       

“H”

       

“I”

       

“J”

       

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

14-7

Session 14 – “Testing Subjects” Practice: Second Session

Date

Name

HGN

WAT

OLS

BAC +/-.08

Arrest Not Arrest

Measured BAC

Remarks

                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

14-8

SAMPLE DRY ERASE BOARD ARRAY FOR TABULATING RESULTS

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Sample Dry Erase Board Array for Tabulating Results

“Designated Subjects”

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Walk and Turn

One Leg Stand

Arrest?

“A”

       

“B”

       

“C”

       

“D”

       

“E”

       

“F”

       

“G”

       

“H”

       

“I”

       

“J”

       

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SFST Field Arrest Log

Date

Name

HGN

WAT

OLS

BAC +/- .08

Arrest / Not Arrest

Measured BAC

Remarks

                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 

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Session 14 - “Testing Subjects” Practice Second Session

Learning Objectives

  • ProperlyadministertheSFSTs

  • Properlyobserveandrecordsubject's

    performance utilizing the standard note

    taking guide

  • Properly interpret the subject's

    performance

  • ProperuseandmaintenanceoftheSFST

    Field Arrest Log

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-A-2

Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

  • Properly administer the SFST's

  • Properly observe and record subject's performance utilizing the standard note taking guide

  • Properly interpret the subject's performance

  • Properly use and maintain the SFST Field Arrest Log
    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  1. Procedures .................................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations

  2. Hands on Practice ........................................................................... Participant Practice Session

  3. Use and Maintenance of SFST Field Arrest Log ..............................Instructor-Led Presentation

  4. Session Wrap Up .................................................................................Instructor-Led Discussion

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Session 14 - “Testing Subjects” Practice Second Session

Procedures

  • Same teams as dry run

  • Each subject will be viewed performing

    all three tasks

  • Only one opportunity to view each subject

  • Record the number of clues observed in the appropriate boxes on video score worksheet

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-A-3

A. Procedures

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Session 14 - “Testing Subjects” Practice Second Session

Procedures

  • Class will be divided into two groups

  • One half will watch video subjects

  • Other half will practice administration of SFSTs

  • At conclusion of video, participants will switch roles

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-A-4

B. Hands on Practice

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Session 14 - “Testing Subjects” Practice Second Session

SFST Field Arrest Log

SFST Field Arrest Log

Date

Name

HGN

BAC WAT OLS +/- .08

Arrest Not Arrest

Measured BAC

Remarks

             
             
             
             
             
             
             

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Session 14 - “Testing Subjects” Practice Second Session

SFST Field Arrest Log Components

  • The actual date the SFSTs were administered

  • Subject's full name
    • ResultsofeachSFSTtest

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-A-6

C. Use and Maintenance of SFST Field Arrest Log (IACP strongly recommends the use of this log)

The SFST Field Arrest Log is used to record the results of the SFSTs performed on suspected impaired subjects.

This log is important in documenting an officer's experience and proficiency in performing and interpreting SFSTs.

This log has the following components:

  • The actual date the SFSTs were administered

  • Subject's full name

  • Results of each SFST test

  • Classification of BAC as above or below 0.08 BAC

  • Arrest/Not Arrest

  • Subject's measured BAC (if available)

  • Remarks

    Utilization of Log

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Session 14 - “Testing Subjects” Practice Second Session

Team Reports

• Videosubjectobservations • Recordresults
• Comments?
• Questions?

• Observations?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-A-7

Session 14 - “Testing Subjects” Practice Second Session

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 14-A-8

D. Session Wrap Up

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Learning Objective

Demonstrate knowledge and proficiency in administering the SFSTs battery

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-2

Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

• Demonstrate knowledge and proficiency in administering the Standardized Field Sobriety Test battery.

CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES A. Review of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus........................................... Instructor-Led Presentations B. Review of Walk and Turn ................................... Instructor and Participant Led Demonstrations C. Review of One Leg Stand

D. Video Demonstrations .................... Video Demonstration (Second Showing) IF TIME PERMITS E. Proficiency Exam .................................................................. Participant Proficiency Examination

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Review

Involuntary jerking of the eyes, occurring as the eyes gaze to the side

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-3

Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Three Clues of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

• Lack of smooth pursuit
• Distinct and sustained nystagmus at

maximum deviation
• Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-4

A. Review of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Involuntary jerking of the eyes, occurring as the eyes gaze to the side.
The subject is generally unaware of the nystagmus.
Nystagmus is caused by alcohol and/or other drugs and some medical conditions. Three specific clues of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus.
Look for these clues in each eye:

  • Lack of smooth pursuit

  • Distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation

  • Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Clue Number 1

Lack of smooth pursuit

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-5

Clue No. 1: Lack of Smooth Pursuit

Position stimulus approximately 12 - 15 inches (30 - 38 cm) in front of subject's nose, slightly above eye level.

Start with the left eye.

Move the stimulus smoothly all the way to the right side (checking subject's left eye) then all the way to the left side (across subject's nose) to the left side (checking subject's right eye).

Make at least two complete passes.
Observe eyes for signs of nystagmus as they move side to side.

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Clue Number 2

Distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-6

Clue No. 2: Distinct and Sustained Nystagmus at Maximum Deviation

Move the stimulus to the right until the subject's left eye reaches maximum deviation. Verify that no white is showing in the corner of the eye.

Hold the stimulus steady for a minimum of four seconds, and watch for distinct and sustained nystagmus.

Repeat for right eye.
Check each eye twice for each clue.

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Clue Number 3

Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-7

Clue No. 3: Onset of Nystagmus prior to 45 Degrees

Position stimulus approximately 12-15 inches (30-38 cm) in front of subject's nose, slightly above eye level.

Begin to make a slow pass in front of the left eye.
When you see nystagmus, stop the stimulus.
Hold the stimulus steady and verify that the nystagmus continues. Verify that there is still some white showing in the corner of the eye. Check the alignment of the object with the subject's shoulder. Repeat for right eye
Check each eye twice for each clue.

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Administrative Procedures

  • Check for Lack of Smooth Pursuit

  • Check for distinct and sustained

    nystagmus at maximum deviation

  • Check for onset of nystagmus prior to 45

    degrees

  • Total the clues

  • Check for Vertical Gaze Nystagmus

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-9

Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Administrative Procedures

• Eyeglasses
• Verbal instructions

V Feet together, hands at sides V Head still
V Look at stimulus
V Follow movement with eyes

• Position stimulus(12-15 inches)(30-38 cm) • Pupil size and resting nystagmus
• Equal tracking

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-8

Nystagmus Administrative Procedures

Step 1: Check for Eyeglasses. Step 2: Verbal Instructions.

  • Feet together, hands at sides

  • Head still

  • Look at stimulus

  • Follow movement with eyes

    Step 3: Positioning the Stimulus.
    Step 4: Pupil Size and Resting Nystagmus.
    Step 5: Check for Equal Tracking.
    Step 6: Check for Lack of Smooth Pursuit.
    Step 7: Check for Distinct and Sustained Nystagmus at Maximum Deviation. Step 8: Check for Onset of Nystagmus Prior to 45 Degrees.
    Step 9: Total the clues.
    Step 10: Check for Vertical Gaze Nystagmus.
    Check each eye independently beginning with the subject's left and compare.

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus Test Criterion

4 or more clues indicates BAC above 0.08 (88% accurate).

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-10

Test Interpretation

Maximum possible number of clues is 6. Test criterion is 4 or more.
Test is 88% accurate.
Based on the San Diego validation study. Participant Led Demonstration

Test Administration
Verbal Instructions
Initial positioning of stimulus. Check for each clue.
Estimate a 45 degree angle. Critique

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Walk and Turn

Divided Attention Mental Task and Physical Task

• Instructions stage • Walking stage

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-11

B. Review Walk and Turn

Two Stage Test

  1. Instructions stage.

  2. Walking stage.

Instructions Stage Positioning

Place your right foot on the line ahead of the left foot, with the heel of your right foot against the toe of the left foot, keeping the arms at the sides.

Maintain this position until I have completed the instructions. Do not start to walk until told to do so.

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Administrative Procedures

Verbal instructions:

• Assume heel toe stance • Arms down at sides
• Don't start until told

9 heel to toe steps turn, 9 heel to toe steps Turn procedures:

• Turn around on line • Several small steps

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-12

Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Administrative Procedures

While walking:
• Keep watching feet
• Arms down at sides
• Count steps out loud
• Don't stop during walk

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

15-13

Walk and Turn Administrative Procedures

Verbal instructions:

  • Assume heel toe stance

  • Arms down at sides

  • Don't start until told

    9 heel to toe steps turn, 9 heel to toe steps Turn procedures:

    • Turn around on line

    • Several small steps
      Walk and Turn Administrative Procedures While walking:

  • Keep watching feet

  • Arms down at sides

  • Count steps out loud

  • Don't stop during walk

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Walk and Turn Test Clues

  • Cannot keep balance (feet break away from the heel to toe stance)

  • Starts too soon (subject starts walking before told to do so)

  • Stops while walking

  • Does not touch heel to toe

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-14

Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Walk and Turn Test Clues

• Steps off line
• Uses arms to balance
• Improper turn
• Incorrect number of steps

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

15-15

There are eight possible clues for the Walk and Turn test:

  • Cannot keep balance

  • Starts too soon

  • Stops while walking

  • Does not touch heel to toe

  • Steps off line

  • Uses arms to balance

  • Improper turn

  • Incorrect number of steps

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Walk and Turn Test Criterion

2 or more clues indicates BAC above 0.08 (79% accurate).

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-16

Test Interpretation

Eight specific clues of impairment.
Test criterion is 2 or more.
Test is 79% accurate.
Based on the San Diego validation study. Participant Led Demonstration

Test Administration Critique

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

One Leg Stand

Divided Attention Test Mental Task and Physical Task

• Instructions stage
• Balance and counting stage

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-17

C. Review of One Leg Stand

Two Stage Test

Instructions stage.
Balance and Counting stage.

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Administrative Procedures

Balance and counting stage:
• Raise either leg
• Keep raised foot approximately six

inches (15 cm) off ground, foot parallel to

the ground
• Keep both legs straight and arms at your

side
• Keep eyes on raised foot
• Count out loud in the following manner:

“One thousand one, one thousand two, one thousand three and so on”, until told to stop

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-19

Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Administrative Procedures

Instructions stage:

  • Stand straight, feet together

  • Keep arms at sides

  • Maintain position until told otherwise

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

15-18

Stand with your feet together with your arms down at your sides.

Hold position until told to begin.

Simple verbal instructions:

When I tell you to start, raise either leg with the foot approximately six inches off the ground, keeping your raised foot parallel to the ground.

Keep both legs straight and your arms at your side. Keep both legs straight and to look at elevated foot.

Count out loud in the following manner: “one thousand one, one thousand two, one thousand three,” and so on until told to stop.

Simple physical demonstrations: Demonstrate One Leg Stand. Demonstrate counting.

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

One Leg Stand Test Clues

• Sways while balancing • Uses arms to balance • Hopping
• Puts foot down

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-20

Test Interpretation

There are four specific clues of impairment for the One Leg Stand test

  • Sways while balancing

  • Uses arms to balance • Hopping

• Puts foot down

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

One Leg Stand Test Criterion

Two or more clues indicates BAC above 0.08 (83% accurate)

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-21

  • Test criterion is 2 or more.

  • Test is 83% accurate.

  • Based on the San Diego validation study

    Participant Led Demonstration Test Administration
    Critique

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Administer Tests

• Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus • WalkandTurn
• OneLegStand

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-23

Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Proficiency Examination

• Demonstrate the ability to administer properly the three SFSTs

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-22

E. Proficiency Examination

Procedures

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

Demonstrate ability to give proper verbal instructions.

Demonstrate ability to carry out the mechanics of testing for each clue.

Demonstrate ability to estimate a 45 degree angle.

Walk and Turn

Demonstrate ability to give proper verbal instructions.

Demonstrate ability to carry out appropriate physical demonstrations to support the verbal instructions.

One Leg Stand

Demonstrate ability to give proper verbal instructions.

Demonstrate ability to carry out appropriate physical demonstrations to support the verbal instructions.

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Group Assignments

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-24

Group Assignments Conduct Examinations

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

Re-Examinations

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-25

Re-examinations (as necessary)

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Session 15 - Review and Proficiency Examinations

QUESTIONS?

Session 15 #

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing 15-26

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PARTICIPANT PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION STANDARDIZED FIELD SOBRIETY TEST BATTERY

Name Date / / Agency
I. HORIZONTAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS

1. Have subject remove glasses if worn.
2. Stimulus held in proper position (approximately 12”-15” from nose, just slightly above eye

level.
3. Check for equal pupil size and resting nystagmus. 4. Check for equal tracking.

5. Smooth movement from center of nose to maximum deviation in approximately 2 seconds and then back across subject's face to maximum deviation in right eye, then back to center. Check left eye, then right eye.(Repeat)

6. Eye held at maximum deviation for a minimum of 4 seconds (no white showing). Checkleft eye, then right eye. (Repeat)

7. Eye moved slowly (approximately 4 seconds) from center to 45 angle. Check left eye, then right eye. (Repeat)

8. Check for Vertical Gaze Nystagmus. (Repeat) WALK AND TURN

1. Instructions given from a safe position.
2. Tells subject to place feet on a line in heel-to-toe manner (left foot behind right foot) with

arms at sides and gives demonstration.
3. Tells subject not to begin test until instructed to do so and asks if subjectunderstands. 4. Tells subject to take nine heel-to-toe steps on the line and demonstrates.
5. Explains and demonstrates turning procedure.
6. Tells subject to return on the line taking nine heel-to-toe steps.
7. Tells subject to count steps out loud.
8. Tells subject to look at feet while walking.
9. Tells subject not to raise arms from sides.

10. Tells subject not to stop once they begin.

II.

11.

Asks subject if all instructions are understood.

DWI Detection and SFST Participant Proficiency Examination

Revised: 10/2015

Page 1 of 2

III. ONE LEG STAND

1. Instructions given from a safe position.

2. Tells subject to stand straight, place feet together, and hold arms at sides.

3. Tells subject not to begin test until instructed to do so and asked if subject understands.

4. Tells subject to raise one leg, either leg, approximately 6” from the ground, keeping raised foot parallel to the ground, and givesdemonstration.

5. Tells subject to keep both legs straight and to look at elevated foot.
6. Tells subject to count out loud in the following manner: one thousand one, one thousand

two, one thousand three, and so on until told to stop, and gives demonstration. 7. Checks actual time subject holds leg up. (Time for 30seconds.)

Instructor:

Note: In order to pass the proficiency examination, the student must explain and proficiently complete each of the steps listed.

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Learning Objectives

  • Complete a written examination with a passing grade

  • Provide comments and suggestions for improving the course

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-2

Upon successfully completing this session the participant will be able to:

  • Complete a written examination with a passing grade.

  • Provide comments and suggestions for improving the course.

    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  1. Post Test.................................................................................. Written Participant Examination

  2. Critique........................................................................................... Written Participant Critique

  3. Review of Post Test ......................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentation

  4. Concluding Remarks

  5. Certificates and Dismissal

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Deterrence and DWI

  • About how many times per year does the average DWI violator commit DWI?

  • An alcohol related crash is more likely to result in death than is a non alcohol

    related crash. How many times more

    likely?

  • It is estimated that the current odds of

    being arrested for DWI on any one impaired driving event are about one in ______.

    16-4

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Deterrence and DWI

  • What approximate percentage of fatal crashes involve drivers who have been drinking?

  • On any typical weekend night, approximately what percentage of cars are driven by persons who are DWI?

• Approximately what percentage of adult Americans are estimated to commit DWI at least occasionally?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-3

Suggested topics for review to prepare for the test.

Deterrence and DWI

  • Approximately what percentage of fatal crashes involve drivers who have been drinking?

  • On any typical weekend night, approximately what percentage of cars are driven by persons who are DWI?

  • Approximately what percentage of adult Americans are estimated to commit DWI at least occasionally?

  • About how many times per year does the average DWI violator commit DWI?

  • An alcohol related crash is more likely to result in death than is a non-alcohol-related

    crash. How many times more likely?

  • It is estimated that the current odds of being arrested for DWI on any one impaired driving event are about one in ______.

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Detection Phases

  • What are the three phases of detection?

  • What is the definition of "detection"?

  • What is the police officer's principal decision during Detection Phase One?

    16-5

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Detection Phases

  • During Phase Two? During Phase Three?

  • Suppose you are on night time patrol and you see a vehicle following another too closely. What are the odds that the driver of the following vehicle is DWI?

    16-6

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Detection Phases

  • What are the three phases of detection?

  • What is the definition of "detection"?

  • What is the police officer's principal decision during Detection Phase One?

  • During Phase Two? During Phase Three?

  • Suppose you are on night time patrol and you see a vehicle following another too closely. What are the odds that the driver of the following vehicle is DWI?

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Laws

  • What does "Per Se" mean?

  • The "illegal per se" law makes it an

    offense to operate a motor vehicle while

    _________.

  • True or False: The implied consent law

    grants the subject the option of refusing

    the chemical test.

  • True or False: A person cannot be

    convicted of DWI if BAC was below 0.05.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-7

Laws

  • What does "Per Se" mean?

  • The "illegal per se" law makes it an offense to operate a motor vehicle while______.

  • True or False: The implied consent law grants the subject the option of refusing the chemical test.

  • True or False: A person cannot be convicted of DWI if BAC was below 0.05.

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Alcohol Physiology

  • True or False: Vision will be impaired for virtually all people by the time BAC reaches 0.08

  • Name at least three factors that may affect the accuracy of a preliminary breath test

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-8

Alcohol Physiology

  • True or False: Vision will be impaired for virtually all people by the time BAC reaches 0.08.

  • Name at least three factors that may affect the accuracy of a preliminary breath test.

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Field Sobriety Testing

  • What does "nystagmus" mean?

  • Walk and Turn is an example of a

    _______________ attention test

  • Name the eight distinct clues of Walk and Turn

  • Name the four distinct clues of One Leg Stand

  • Name the three distinct clues of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

• What is the critical angle for determining whether the third clue of HGN is present?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-9

Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Field Sobriety Testing

  • How many steps in each direction must the subject take in the Walk and Turn test?

  • How long must the subject stand on one foot in the One Leg Stand test?

  • Suppose a subject produces three clues on the HGN test and one clue on the Walk and Turn test. Should you classify the subject's BAC as above or below 0.08?

  • How reliable is each test using the San Diego study?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-10

Field Sobriety Testing

  • What does "nystagmus" mean?

  • Walk and Turn is an example of a _______________ attention test.

  • Name the eight distinct clues of Walk and Turn.

  • Name the four distinct clues of One Leg Stand.

  • Name the three distinct clues of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus.

  • What is the critical angle for determining whether the third clue of HGN is present?

  • How many steps in each direction must the subject take in the Walk and Turn test?

  • How long must the subject stand on one foot in the One Leg Stand test?

  • Suppose a subject produces three clues on the HGN test and one clue on the Walk and Turn test. Should you classify the subject's BAC as above or below 0.08?

  • How reliable is each test using the San Diego field validation study?

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Post Test

• “Closed book“
• Passing score is 80%
• Approximately 15-20 minutes to

complete

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

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A. Post Test

Purpose of Post Test: to compare with pretest, and determine extent of knowledge gained by participants.

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Course Critique

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-12

B. Critique

Purpose of the critique form: To identify possible improvements that can and should be made to this program.

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Review of Post Test

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-13

C. Review of Post Test

If passing score is not achieved, participant(s) will be allowed to take “make up” exam.

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Ultimate Goal

Increase DWI Deterrence and Decrease Alcohol Related Crashes, Deaths and Injuries.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-14

Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

Job Performance Objectives

You will become better able to:

  • Recognize and interpret evidence of DWI violations

  • Administer and interpret validated psychophysical standardized field sobriety tests

  • Describe DWI evidence clearly and convincingly

    DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-15

D. Concluding Remarks

E. Certificates and Dismissal

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Session 1 – Written Examination and Program Conclusion

QUESTIONS?

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

16-16

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Course Location __________________________________Date______ / ___/___

DWI Detection And Standardized Field Sobriety Testing Training Program Participant's Critique

A. Workshop Objectives

Please indicate whether you feel that you personally achieved the following course objectives.

 

Yes

No

Not Sure

1. Enable you to understand enforcement's role in general DWI deterrence.

     

2. Enable you to understand the detection phases.

     

3. Enable you to understand requirements for organizing and presenting testimonial and documentary evidence in DWI cases.

     

4. Improve your ability to recognize and interpret evidence of DWI violations.

     

5. Enable you to administer and interpret validated psychophysical tests to DWI subjects.

     

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6. Improve your ability to describe DWI evidence clearly and convincingly in written reports and verbal testimony.

     

B. Workshop Sessions and Quality of Instruction

Please rate how helpful each workshop session was for you personally. Also, please rate the quality of instruction (subject knowledge, instructional techniques and learning activities).

Use a scale from 1 to 5 where: 5=Excellent, 4=Very Good, 3=Good, 2=Fair, 1=Poor. Session/Activity

Quality ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Page 2 of 5

Detection and General Deterrence
The Legal Environment
Overview of Detection, Note Taking and Testimony
Phase One: Vehicle in Motion
Phase Two: Personal Contact
Phase Three: Pre-Arrest Screening
Concepts and Principles of Standardized Field Sobriety Tests Test Battery Demonstrations
"Dry Run" Practice
"Drinking Subjects" Practice
Processing the Arrested Subject and Preparation for Trial Report Writing Exercise and Moot Court

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C. Course Design

Please circle the appropriate word to indicate your agreement or disagreement with each of the following statements.

  1. The program contains some information that is not needed and that should be deleted. Agree Disagree Not Sure

  2. There are some important topics missing from the program that should be added. Agree Disagree Not Sure

  1. The program is too short.
    Agree Disagree Not Sure

  2. I feel this program has improved my own ability to enforce DWI laws.

Agree Disagree

  1. The instructors did a good job.

    Agree Disagree

  2. I am very glad I attended the program.

    Agree Disagree

  3. The program is too long.

    Agree Disagree

  4. The instructors should have been better prepared.

    Agree Disagree

  5. I feel fully qualified to use the nystagmus test now.

    Agree Disagree

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Not Sure Not Sure Not Sure Not Sure Not Sure Not Sure

Page 3 of 5

  1. I feel fully qualified to use the two divided attention tests now. Agree Disagree Not Sure

  2. Too much time was spent practicing with drinking volunteers.

Agree

  1. These Agree

  2. I wish Agree

  1. If you

  2. If you

Disagree Not Sure
three new tests definitely will improve our ability to identify impaired drivers.

Disagree Not Sure we had more practice with drinking volunteers.

Disagree Not Sure

absolutely had to delete one session or topic from this course, what would it be?

could add one new topic or session to this course, what would it be?

F. Overall Course Rating

Please rate the overall quality of the seminar on a scale from 1 to 5 where: 5=Excellent, 4=Very Good, 3=Good, 2=Fair, 1=Poor.

Overall Course Rating:

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G. Quality of Instruction

Please rate each instructor on a scale from 1 to 5 where: 5=Excellent, 4=Very Good, 3=Good, 2=Fair, 1=Poor.

Instructor

Instructor

Instructor

Instructor

______ Rating

______ Rating

______ Rating

______ Rating

H. Please provide any final comments or suggestions that you feel are appropriate.

I. Please comment on the "Introduction to Drugged Driving" portion of the class, if presented.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Learning Objectives

  • Define the term “drug” in the context of DWI enforcement

  • Describe the incidence of drug involvement in motor vehicle crashes and DWI enforcement

  • Name the categories of drugs

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Intro-2

Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the observable signs of impairment usually associated with the seven drug categories

  • Describe medical conditions and other situations that can produce similar signs of impairment

  • Describe appropriate procedures for dealing with drug impaired or medically impaired suspects

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-3

At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to:

  • Define the term "drug" in the context of DWI enforcement

  • Describe in approximate, quantitative terms the incidence of drug involvement in motor vehicle crashes and in DWI enforcement

  • Name the categories of drugs
    Learning Objectives
    Describe the observable signs usually associated with the drug categories

  • Describe medical conditions and other situations that can produce similar signs

  • Describe appropriate procedures for dealing with drug impaired or medically impaired

    suspects.
    CONTENT SEGMENTS..................................................................................... LEARNING ACTIVITIES

  1. Overview ....................................................................................... Instructor-Led Presentations

  2. Eye Examinations: Detecting Signs of Drug Influence ................................. Participant Practice

  3. Drug Categories and Their Observable Effects

  4. Combination of Drugs

  5. Dealing with Suspected Drug Influence or Medical Impairment

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Session Purpose

Improve your ability to recognize suspects who may be medically impaired or impaired by drugs other than alcohol and, when you encounter such suspects, take appropriate action

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-4

Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

This Training Will NOT

Important issue this training will NOT qualify you to perform the functions of a Drug Recognition Expert.

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-5

A. Overview

  • The purpose of this session is to improve your ability to recognize suspects who may be medically impaired or impaired by drugs other than alcohol and, when you encounter such suspects, take appropriate action.

  • Alcohol certainly remains the most frequently abused drug, and most impaired drivers are under the influence of alcohol

  • Many other drugs also are routinely abused by many drivers.

  • It is highly likely that every experienced DWI enforcement officer has encountered at

    least some drivers who were under the influence of drugs other than alcohol.

  • Depending upon the specific types of drugs they have taken, some drug-impaired drivers may look and act quite a bit like persons who are under the influence of alcohol, but others will look and act very differently from alcohol-impaired drivers.

  • It is important that you be able to recognize subjects who may be under the influence of other drugs, so that you will know when to summon assistance from physicians or other appropriate persons, or trained drug recognition experts. (DREs)

    One important thing that this session will not accomplish: it will NOT qualify you to perform functions of a Drug Recognition Expert (DRE).

    Officers become DREs only after they have completed a very challenging program that includes nine days of classroom training and many weeks of closely-supervised on-the-job training. (Two-Day Pre-School followed by Seven-Day classroom training.)

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

What is a “Drug”?

Working Definition of “Drug”:

“Any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely.”

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-6

A Simple, Enforcement-Oriented Definition of Drugs

“any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely.”

Working definition derived from the 1985 California Vehicle Code.

This definition includes some substances that physicians don't usually think of as drugs.

Within this simple, enforcement-oriented definition, there are seven categories of drugs.

Each category consists of substances that impair a person's ability to drive.

The categories differ from one another in terms of how they impair driving ability and in terms of the kinds of impairment they cause.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

How Many People Use Drugs?

  • Because many drugs are illegally manufactured, sold and consumed, it is difficult to determine how many people actually use the various drugs

  • All available information shows that drug use and abuse are widespread among large segments of the American public

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-7

How many people use drugs?

  • Because many drugs are illegally manufactured, sold and consumed, it is difficult to determine how many people actually use the various drugs.

  • All available information shows that drug use and abuse are widespread among large segments of the American public.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

2014 National Survey Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)

  • 139.7 million (52%) people consider themselves drinkers

  • 60.9 million people describe themselves as binge alcohol users

  • Estimated 27 million people aged 12 or older were current illicit drug users in 2014

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-8

C. Statistics and Research

Alcohol and Drug Use

Social drinking is considered acceptable in many societies.

It is important to understand the use of alcohol in the context of society, since it is related to the enforcement and adjudication of DWI offenses.

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Survey 2012 reports that:
139.7 million (52%) people consider themselves as alcohol users
60.9 million people describe themselves as binge drinkers.
An estimated 27.0 million people aged 12 or older were current illicit drug users in 2014.

Although these statistics are significant, it is reasonable to assume that the problem is even larger when you consider legal or prescription drugs used in a manner other than for what they have been prescribed or produced.

When we look at drug use specifically, it is helpful to see the trends based on specific types of drugs.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Facts

  • University of Tennessee found 40% of crash injured drivers had drugs other than alcohol in them

  • The Maryland Shock Trauma Center found nearly one third of crash injured drivers had recently used marijuana

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-9

Evidence of drug use frequently shows up in people killed or injured in motor vehicle crashes.

  • Fact: University of Tennessee (1988) found 40% of crash injured drivers had drugs other than alcohol in them.

  • Fact: The Maryland Shock Trauma Center (1986) found nearly one-third of crash injured drivers had recently used Marijuana.

    Studies of fatally-injured drivers consistently show that nearly 43% had drugs or the combination of drugs and alcohol in their systems at the time of the crash.

    Source: FARS, 2012

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Eye Examinations: Detecting Signs of Drug Influence

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Intro-10

B. Eye Examinations: Detecting Signs of Dug Influence

The eyes disclose some of the clearest signs of drug impairment or medical conditions.

  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus is a very clear indication, in subject's eyes, of possible alcohol impairment.

  • There are a number of drugs, other than alcohol, that will cause horizontal gaze nystagmus.

  • There are a number of other drugs that will not cause horizontal gaze nystagmus.

  • There are many other clues that the eyes will disclose, all of which will suggest the

    presence or absence of drugs or medical impairment.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Eye Examinations Overview

The eye examinations that you can conduct to assess possible drug or medical impairment include:

  • Resting nystagmus

  • Tracking ability

  • Pupil size

  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN)

  • Vertical gaze nystagmus (VGN)

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Intro-11

Eye Examinations Overview:

The eye examinations that you can conduct to assess possible drug or medical impairment include:

  • Resting nystagmus

  • Tracking ability

  • Pupil size

  • Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN)

  • Vertical gaze nystagmus (VGN)

    Resting Nystagmus is referred to as jerking as the eyes look straight ahead. This condition is not frequently seen. Its presence usually indicates a pathological disorder or high doses of a Dissociative Anesthetic drug such as PCP.

    Tracking Ability will be affected by certain categories of drugs, and also by certain medical conditions or pathological disorders.

    If the two eyes do not track together, the possibility of a medical condition or injury is present. By passing a stimulus across both eyes, you can check to see if both eyes are tracking equally.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Eye Examinations Overview

Tracking ability will be affected by certain categories of drugs, and also by certain medical conditions or pathological disorders

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-12

Tracking Ability will be affected by certain categories of drugs, and also by certain medical conditions or pathological disorders.

If the two eyes do not track together, the possibility of a medical condition or injury is present. By passing a stimulus across both eyes, you can check to see if both eyes are tracking equally.

If they don't (i.e., if one eye tracks the stimulus, but the other fails to move, or lags behind the stimulus) there is the possibility of a pathological disorder.

If a person has sight in both eyes, but the eyes fail to track together, there is a possibility that the person is suffering from an injury or illness.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Pupil Size

Pupil size will be affected by several categories of drugs, and also by some medical conditions or injuries.

Drugs causing pupil dilation: • CNS Stimulants

• Hallucinogens • Cannabis

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-13

Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Pupil Size

If the pupils are noticeably constricted then the possibility exists that the subject could be impaired by a narcotic analgesic

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-14

Pupil Size

Pupil size will be affected by several categories of drugs, and also by some medical conditions or injuries:

• If the two pupils are distinctly different in size, it is possible that the subject has a glass eye, or is suffering from a head injury or a neurological disorder.

If the pupils are noticeably dilated, then the possibility exists that the subject could be impaired by certain categories of drugs:

• CNS Stimulants • Hallucinogens • Cannabis

Pupil Size

If the pupils are noticeably constricted then the possibility exists that the subject could be impaired by a narcotic analgesic.

CNS Depressants, Dissociative Anesthetics, and Inhalants usually do not affect pupil size.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

(HGN)

The Test of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) for subjects is identical to the HGN test for alcohol-impaired subjects.

  • First Clue: lack of smooth pursuit

  • Second clue: distinct and sustained

    nystagmus at maximum deviation

  • Third clue: onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

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Intro-15

Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus

The test of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (HGN) for subjects is identical to the HGN test for alcohol-impaired subjects.

  • First Clue: Lack of smooth pursuit

  • Second clue: Distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation

  • Third clue: Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees

    If the eyes track equally, but “jerk” while they are moving, then the possible presence of three categories of drugs should be noted:

  • Central Nervous System Depressants

  • Dissociative Anesthetics

  • Inhalants

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

PCP May Cause Immediate

Onset of Nystagmus

The angle of onset becomes of special interest when a subject is under the influence of a Dissociative Anesthetic such as PCP

DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Testing

Intro-16

PCP May Cause Immediate Onset of Nystagmus

PCP impaired subjects may exhibit immediate onset, i.e., the jerking begins virtually as soon as the eyes start to move toward the side.

Sometimes, PCP- impaired subjects will exhibit resting nystagmus, i.e., the eyes jerk while they are looking straight ahead.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Vertical Nystagmus

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Intro-17

Vertical Nystagmus

The Vertical Nystagmus test is very simple to administer.

  • Position the stimulus horizontally. Approximately 12-15 inches (30-38 cm) in front of the subject's nose.

  • Instruct the subject to hold their head still, and follow the stimulus with the eyes only.

  • Raise the stimulus until the subject's eyes are elevated as far as possible, hold for a

    minimum of four seconds.

  • Watch closely for evidence of jerking (up and down).

    Vertical Nystagmus may be present in subjects under the influence of CNS Depressants or Inhalants.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Drug Categories and Their

Observable Effects

  • Central Nervous System Depressants

  • Central Nervous System Stimulants

  • Hallucinogens

  • Dissociative Anesthetics

  • Narcotic Analgesics

  • Inhalants

  • Cannabis

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Intro-18

C. Drug Categories and Their Observable Effects

Seven Categories of “Drugs”

Definition of “Drug”: Any substance that, when taken into the human body, can impair the ability of the person to operate a vehicle safely.

Within this simple, enforcement-oriented definition, there are seven categories of drugs: • Central Nervous System Depressants
• Central Nervous System Stimulants
• Hallucinogens

• Dissociative Anesthetics • Narcotic Analgesics
• Inhalants
• Cannabis

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Central Nervous System

(CNS) Depressants

  • Alcohol

  • Barbiturates (Secobarbital)

  • Non barbiturates (GHB/Soma)

  • Anti-Anxiety

    Tranquilizers(Valium/Xanax)

  • Anti-Depressants (Prozac/Elavil)

  • Muscle relaxants

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Intro-19

Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants

CNS Depressants slow down the operations of the brain, and usually depress the heartbeat, respiration, and many other processes controlled by the brain.

The most familiar CNS Depressant is alcohol. Other CNS Depressants include:

  • Barbiturates (such as Secobarbital (Seconal), and Pentobarbital (Luminal))

  • Non-Barbiturates (GHB-gamma-hydroxybutyrate and Soma)

  • Anti-Anxiety Tranquilizers (Such as Valium, Librium, Xanax, and Rohpynol)

  • Anti-Depressants (such as Prozac and Elavil)

  • Muscle relaxants and many other drugs (Soma)
    CNS Depressants usually are taken orally, in the form of pills, capsules, liquids, etc. However,

    CNS Depressants may be injected or insufflated.

    In general, people under the influence of any CNS Depressant look and act like people under the influence of alcohol.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Indicators of
CNS Depressant Influence

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Intro-20

General indicators of CNS Depressant influence are:

  • “Drunken” behavior and appearance

  • Uncoordinated

  • Drowsy

  • Sluggish

  • Disoriented

  • Thick, slurred speech

  • Unsteady, staggering (Gait Ataxia)

    Eye indicators of CNS Depressant influence are:

  • Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus usually will be present

  • Vertical nystagmus may be present (with high doses)

  • Pupil size usually will not be effected, except that Methaqualone and Soma may cause pupil dilation

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Central Nervous System (CNS) Stimulants

• Cocaine
• Amphetamines
• Methamphetamine

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Intro-21

Central Nervous System Stimulants

Central Nervous System Stimulants accelerate the heart rate, respiration and many other processes of the body.

The two most widely abused kinds of CNS Stimulants are cocaine and methamphetamines. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the coca plant.
Methamphetamines are chemically produced (manufactured) drugs.
Cocaine abusers may take the drug:

  • By insufflation

  • By smoking (freebase, or “Crack”)

  • By injection

  • Orally

    Abusers of amphetamines and methamphetamines may take their drugs:

  • By injection

  • Orally

  • By insufflation

  • Smoked (methamphetamines only)

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Indicators of

CNS Stimulant Influence

  • PeopleundertheinfluenceofCNS Stimulants tend to be hyperactive, indicated by nervousness, extreme talkativeness and an inability to sit still

  • They also are usually unable to concentrate, or to think clearly for any length of time

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Intro-22

General indicators of CNS Stimulant influence:

People under the influence of CNS Stimulants tend to be hyperactive, indicated by nervousness, extreme talkativeness and an inability to sit still. They also are usually unable to concentrate, or to think clearly for any length of time.

  • Restlessness

  • Talkative

  • Excitation

  • Euphoria

  • Exaggerated reflexes

  • Loss of appetite

  • Anxiety

  • Grinding teeth (bruxism)

  • Redness to nasal area (if “snorting”)

  • Body tremors

    Eye indicators of CNS Stimulant influence:

    • Neither horizontal nor vertical nystagmus will be observed

    • The pupils generally will be dilated.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Hallucinogens

• Peyote
• Salvia Divinorum • LSD
• MDMA (Ecstasy)

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Intro-23

Hallucinogens

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect a person's perceptions, sensations, thinking, self awareness and emotions.

One common type of hallucination caused by these drugs is called synesthesia, which means a transposing of the senses.

Sounds for example, may be transposed into sights.
Sights, for example, may be transposed into odors or sounds. Some hallucinogenic drugs come from natural sources:

  • Peyote is a Hallucinogen found in a particular species of cactus.

  • Psilocybin is a Hallucinogen found in a number of species of mushroom. Other Hallucinogens are synthetically manufactured:

    • LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)

    • MDA (3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine)

    • MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or Ecstasy)

    • Many others

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Indicators of Hallucinogen Influence

• Hallucinations
• Dazed appearance • Paranoia

• Body tremors

• Uncoordinated

• Disoriented
• Difficulty in speech

• Perspiring • Piloerection

• Nausea (goose bumps)

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Intro-24

General indicators of Hallucinogen influence:

Hallucinogen abusers usually take their drugs orally; however, some Hallucinogens can be smoked, or injected or “snorted”.

  • Hallucinations

  • Dazed appearance

  • Body tremors

  • Uncoordinated

  • Perspiring

  • Disoriented

  • Paranoia

  • Difficulty in speech

  • Nausea

  • Piloerection (goose bumps)

    Eye indicators of Hallucinogen influence:

    • Neither horizontal nor vertical gaze nystagmus should be present

    • The pupils usually will be noticeably dilated

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Dissociative Anesthetics

• Phencyclidine (PCP) • Ketamine
• Dextromethorphan

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Intro-25

Dissociative Anesthetics

Dissociative Anesthetics is the category of drugs that includes PCP, its various analogs, and Dextromethorphan (DXM).

PCP is a synthetic drug, that was first developed as an intravenous anesthetic.

Because PCP produces very undesirable side effects, it is no longer legally manufactured. However, an analog (chemical cousin) Ketamine is still being legally manufactured and available.

However, it is easy to manufacture:

  • The formula for making PCP and PCP analogs have been widely publicized.

  • The manufacturing process involves readily available chemicals.

    Many Dissociative Anesthetic users smoke the drug, by using it to adulterate tobacco, marijuana, or various other substances.

    Dissociative Anesthetics can also be taken orally or by injection, or inhaled.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Indicators of Dissociative

Anesthetic Influence

  • Warm to the touch

  • Perspiring

  • Blank stare

  • Repetitive speech

  • Incomplete verbal responses

  • Confused

  • Muscle rigidity

  • Possibly violent and combative

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Intro-26

General indicators of Dissociative Anesthetics:
Dissociative Anesthetics cans also be taken orally or by injection, or inhaled.

  • Warm to the touch

  • Perspiring

  • Blank stare

  • Repetitive speech

  • Incomplete verbal responses

  • Confused

  • Muscle rigidity

  • Possibly violent and combative
    Eye Indicators of Dissociative Anesthetic influence:

  • Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus generally will be present, often with very early onset and very distinct jerking.

  • Vertical nystagmus generally will be present.

  • Pupil Size usually will not be effected.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Narcotic Analgesics

  • Heroin

  • Morphine

  • Codeine

  • Synthetic Opiates (e.g., Methadone, Fentanyl)

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Intro-27

Narcotic Analgesics

Narcotic Analgesics include a large number of drugs that share three important characteristics:

  • They will relieve pain.

  • They will produce withdrawal signs and symptoms, when the drug is stopped after chronic administration.

• They will suppress the withdrawal signs and symptoms of chronic morphine administration.

Some drugs classified as Narcotic Analgesics are natural derivatives of opium: • Heroin

• Morphine

• Codeine
Some are synthetic Narcotic Analgesics, such as:

• Methadone • Numorphan • Fentanyl
• OxyContin

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

“Tolerance”

  • An important characteristic of Narcotic Analgesics is that users develop tolerance to them

  • “Tolerance” means that the same dose of the drug will produce diminishing effects, or that a steadily larger dose is needed to produce the same effects

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Intro-28

Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Indicators of

Narcotic Analgesic Influence

  • “On the nod”

  • Droopy eyelids

  • Depressed reflexes

  • Dry mouth

  • Facial itching

  • Low, raspy speech

  • Fresh puncture marks may be evident

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Intro-29

Tolerance

  • An important characteristic of Narcotic Analgesics is that users develop tolerance to them.

  • “Tolerance” means that the same dose of the drug will produce diminishing effects, or that a steadily larger dose is needed to produce the same effects.

    A tolerant user who has taken his or her “normal” dose of heroin (for example), may exhibit little evidence of divided attention impairment.

    General indicators of Narcotic Analgesic influence:

  • “On the nod”

  • Droopy eyelids

  • Depressed reflexes

  • Dry mouth

  • Facial itching

  • Low, raspy speech

  • Fresh puncture marks may be evident

    Eye indicators of Narcotic Analgesic influence:

    • Neither horizontal nor vertical nystagmus will be present

    • Pupils generally will be constricted

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Inhalants

  • Various glues

  • Paint

  • Gasoline

  • Aerosol sprays

  • Nitrous Oxide

  • Ether

  • Amyl Nitrite

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Inhalants

Inhalants are breathable chemicals that produce mind-altering results.

Inhalants include many familiar household materials, such as glue (“Toluene”), paint, gasoline, aerosol sprays, etc. that produce volatile fumes.

Some drugs that are classified as Inhalants include:

  • Various glues (e.g. Toluene)

  • Paint

  • Gasoline

  • Aerosol sprays (i.e., vegetable frying pan lubricants, hair sprays, insecticides)

  • Nitrous Oxide

  • Ether

  • Amyl Nitrite

    Certain anesthetics also may be used as Inhalants.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Indicators of Inhalant Influence

  • Disoriented

  • Slurred speech

  • Residue of substance on face, hands, clothing

  • Confusion

  • Possible nausea

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General indicators of Inhalant influence:

  • Disoriented

  • Slurred speech

  • Residue of substance on face, hands, clothing

  • Confusion

  • Possible nausea
    Eye indicators of Inhalant influence:

  • Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus generally will be present.

  • Vertical Nystagmus may be present (especially with high doses).

  • Pupil size generally will not be effected.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Cannabis

• Marijuana • Hashish
• Hash oil

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Cannabis

Cannabis is a category of drugs derived from various species of plants, such as the Cannabis Sativa and Cannabis Indica.

  • Marijuana

  • Hashish

  • Hash oil

  • Synthetic THC (Marinol or Dronabinol)

  • Synthetic Cannabinoid products (Spice, K2, JWH-18, etc.)

    Cannabis products generally are smoked, although they also can be ingested orally.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Indicators of Cannabis Influence

  • Bloodshot eyes

  • Body tremors

  • Odor of marijuana

  • Disoriented

  • Relaxed inhibitions

  • Difficulty in dividing attention

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General Indicators of Cannabis Influence:

  • Bloodshot eyes

  • Body tremors

  • Odor of marijuana

  • Disoriented

  • Relaxed inhibitions

  • Difficulty in dividing attention

    Eye indicators of Cannabis Influence:

  • Neither horizontal nor vertical nystagmus will be present

  • Pupil size generally will be dilated, but also may not be effected

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Combinations of Drugs

  • “Poly” derives from the Greek word for “many”

  • In the Los Angeles Field Study (1985), 81 of the 173 suspects (47%) in the Los Angeles Field Study had alcohol in combination with one or more other drugs

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D. Combinations of Drugs

Many drug users routinely ingest drugs from two or more drug categories at the same time. • The term for this condition is "polydrug use".

In the Los Angeles Field Study (1985), 72% of the suspects had two or more drugs in them. In that study, alcohol was often found in combination with one or more other drugs.

But even if we discount alcohol, nearly half (45%) of the Field Study suspects had two or more other drugs in them.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Common Combinations of Drugs

  • Alcohol and some other drug

  • PCP and Cannabis

  • Cocaine and Heroin

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Common Combinations of Drugs

  • Alcohol and some other drug is the most frequent combination

  • PCP and Cannabis is another common combination

  • Cocaine and Heroin is another common combination

    Because polydrug use is so common, you should not be surprised to encounter subjects who are under the influence of more than one category of drugs.

  • At some times and places polydrug users may be more common than single drug users.

  • Be especially alert to the possibility that subjects who have been drinking alcohol may

    also have ingested some other drug or drugs.

    The effects of polydrug use may vary widely, depending on exactly what combination of drugs is involved, how ingested and when they were ingested.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Possible Effects
of Drug Combinations

• Null
• Overlapping • Additive
• Antagonistic

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Any particular combination of drugs may produce four general kinds of effects:

  • Null: Neither drug has an effect on the indicator.

  • Overlapping: Each drug may effect the subject in some different way. In combination, both effects may appear.

  • Additive: The two drugs may independently produce some similar effects. In combination, these effects may be enhanced.

  • Antagonistic: The two drugs may produce some effects that are exactly opposite. In combination, these effects may mask each other.

Example of Antagonistic Effect: A CNS Stimulant usually causes pupil dilation. A narcotic usually causes pupil constriction. It is possible that someone who is simultaneously under the influence of a stimulant and narcotic may have pupils that are nearly normal in size. It is also possible that the pupils will change as the effects of one drug diminishes while the other increases.

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Dealing With Suspected Drug Influence or Medical Impairment

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E. Dealing With Suspected Drug Influence of Medical Impairment

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Session Overview – Introduction to Drugged Driving

Questions?

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F. Closing

Consult with a DRE, if possible and document in detail all observations.

Although this course is not designed to qualify you as a DRE, it is intended to make you more knowledgeable when encountering drivers impaired by substances other than alcohol.

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